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Povijest radija i nogometa

Povijest radija i nogometa


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BBC radio emitirao je svoj prvi komentar na profesionalnu nogometnu utakmicu u siječnju 1927. kada je prikazana utakmica između Arsenala i Sheffield Uniteda. Kasnije te godine BBC je prenosio finale FA kupa. Do 1931. BBC je emitirao preko 100 utakmica po sezoni. U to je vrijeme samo oko 30% kućanstava posjedovalo radio.

Vodeći komentator BBC-a 1930.-31. Bio je George Allison. Kako bi slušatelju bilo lakše razumjeti što se događa, u Radio Timesu je objavljen dijagram koji prikazuje nogometno igralište podijeljeno na numerirane kvadrate. Tijekom igre Allisonin je pomoćnik dozivao broj kvadrata u kojem se nalazila lopta.

Velika depresija rezultirala je padom posjećenosti nogometnih utakmica. Neki predsjednik kluba djelomično je okrivio radijsko izvještavanje za ovu situaciju, pa je u lipnju 1931. Nogometna liga zabranila sve prijenose svojih utakmica. Ova zabrana trebala se nastaviti do poslije Drugog svjetskog rata.

Nogometni savez nije dijelio ove negativne poglede na radio, a tijekom 1930 -ih BBC je emitirao svako finale FA kupa. Do 1939. oko 71% kućanstava posjedovalo je radio aparate i 8.900.000 licenciranih uređaja.


Povijest WCCO radija

U listopadu 2014. WCCO Radio slavi 90. godinu emitiranja. Od starog hotela Oak Grove do današnjih studija na 2. aveniji i 7. ulici, WCCO je donio slušateljima radija iz Minnesote i s gornjeg srednjeg zapada velike vijesti i velike događaje, smijeh i suze, glazbu i sport te sve potrebne informacije da prođu kroz svoje dan. Osobnosti su postale prijatelji i suputnici slušatelja. Cedric, Clellen, Viken, Joyce, Charlie and Rog, Cannon, Dave, Shelby, Tafoya, Williams, Hines, Hartman, Herb, Gordo, Ray, Chappy & imena se nastavljaju. Ti ljudi i sve tisuće ljudi koji su bili ovdje, od redakcije i studija do producenata i inženjera, prodajnog odjela, menadžera i uredskog osoblja, svaka osoba koja je ušla kroz vrata WCCO -a znala je da povjerenje jedne države i regija ovisila je o tome da će oni učiniti ono što su slušatelji očekivali tijekom tih 90 godina.

Bio je paket džinglova WCCO -a uveden 1980. -ih#8217 pod nazivom “Real Radio ” koji se mnogi slušatelji i osoblje rado sjećaju, i to je fraza za koju se danas držimo: Mi smo#stvarni. Pravi ljudi, pravi Minnesotanci, pravi, uživo, lokalni radio. Rijetkost u današnjem svijetu medija#8217.

Ponosni smo na baštinu ovdje i ponosni smo što možemo s vama podijeliti neke od tih trenutaka, ovdje u kratkoj povijesti WCCO radija. Uživajte u slikama, glasovima i zvucima 90 godina!

Kratka povijest radija WCCO

Larry Haeg razgovara s bivšim generalnim direktorom WCCO -a o rođenju WLAG -a i WCCO -a u 20.

WCCO je počeo emitirati u Minneapolisu 4. rujna 1922. kao WLAG, poznat kao & ldquothe Call of the North & rdquo, iz hotela u blizini Loring Parka, u Minneapolisu, Minnesota. Međutim, stanica je ubrzo pala u financijske probleme i zatvorila se 1924. Washburn Crosby Company, preteča General Mills -a, preuzela je postaju i preimenovala je u WCCO (za Washburn Crosby COmpany), a emitiranje je nastavljeno manje od dva mjeseca kasnije u listopadu. 2, 1924 sa svog trenutnog mjesta odašiljača u Coon Rapids -u (tada poznatom kao Anoka Township). No, za taj kratki prekid, WCCO bi bila najstarija postaja koja se emitira danas u Minnesoti. Prvotno je emitirano u 710 sati. Gornji zvuk je intervju#8220 koji je napravio Larry Haeg, koji je bio generalni direktor WCCO -a 1960. i#8217. godine s bivšim GM Earlom Gammonsom. Ovo je neprocjenjiva rana povijest WLAG -a i WCCO -a jer je Earl bio uključen u najranije poslovanje postaje i ova je snimka na sreću sačuvala njegova sjećanja. Earl je na kraju postao potpredsjednik CBS -a.

U prvim danima radija, WCCO je bio moćna snaga u razvoju boljih i snažnijih odašiljača. Dana 11. studenoga 1928. provedbom FCC & rsquos Opće naredbe 40, WCCO je promijenio svoju frekvenciju na 810 kHz i dobio status čistog kanala. Potpisan je s 50.000 vati po prvi put u rujnu 1932. Tridesetih godina dva su dodatna tornja od 300 stopa dodana kako bi se povećao domet signala postaje i rsquosa, dopuštajući ga da se uhvati čak do Havaja i Karipskog mora kad su atmosferski uvjeti bili pravi. Kasnije 1932., CBS je kupio WCCO od General Mills -a, i do danas je povezan s CBS -ovom radijskom mrežom.

WCCO je aktivirao novi toranj od 654 stope u Coon Rapids 1939. To je isti toranj koji se koristi i danas, iako je frekvencija emitiranja promijenjena na 830 kHz kao rezultat Sjevernoameričkog sporazuma o radiodifuziji iz 1941. godine.

WCCO odašiljač

Zbog visine i snage tornja & rsquos -a, kao i uglavnom ravnog krajolika Minnesote & rsquos, WCCO se može pohvaliti jednim od najvećih pokrivenih područja u zemlji. Tijekom dana pruža barem stupanj B pokrivenosti gotovo cijele Minnesote (sjevernije od Dulutha i južno do Rochestera), plus velike dijelove Iowe i Wisconsina. Pod pravim uvjetima, doseže do dijelova Sjeverne i Južne Dakote. Noću signal postaje & rsquos obično dopire u mnoge američke države i kanadske provincije. Određeni uvjeti mogu učiniti da se signal protegne još dalje & mdash Legendarna postaja Howard Viken kaže da je jednom uzeo stanicu dok je bio stacioniran na Guadalcanalu 1943. godine! 2005. WCCO je počeo emitirati u visokoj razlučivosti.

Emitiranje radija WCCO 40. obljetnice

Emitiranje 50. godišnjice WCCO radija 1. dio

Emitiranje 50. godišnjice WCCO radija 2. dio

Cedric Adams, prvi gradovi blizanci & ldquoMedia Star & rdquo

Tih ranih dana, emiteri WCCO -a bili su značajne slavne osobe na srednjem zapadu. Možda je najveći od svih bio Cedric Adams koji se prvi put pojavio na WCCO -u 1931., a emitirao na stanici do svoje smrti 1961. Piloti koji su letjeli iznad gornjeg srednjeg zapada izvještavali su kako su svake noći gledali kako se svjetla gase po cijeloj regiji kad je Adams završio svoju Vijesti u 22:00 sata. Howard Viken, Maynard Speece, Charlie Boone i Roger Erickson, Jergen Nash, Joyce Lamont, Randy Merriman i mnogi drugi bili su toliko poznati i voljeni da su istaknuti televizijski voditelj Steve Cannon & ldquothe Iron Ranger & rdquo i njegova glumačka ekipa, uključujući Backlash LaRue i Ma Linger stigao u WCCO 1971., mnogi su ga slušatelji još uvijek smatrali "momkom & ldquonew" & rdquo gotovo sve do svoje mirovine 26 godina kasnije.

Radio WCCO godinama je bio poznat pod mnogim imenima. “CCO ” onima koji znaju, bila je to stanica#8220Zlatna medalja, “Dobar susjed na sjeverozapadu ”, samo “Dobar susjed ”, Minnesota ’s 8-3-0, Vijesti Radio WCCO, i još mnogo toga.

Format se također mijenjao tijekom godina. Rani dani uključivali su mnogo glazbenih i poljoprivrednih izvještaja. Do 1930 -ih i#8217 -ih godina radio drama i komedija zahvatili su cijelu naciju. Uz popularne mrežne emisije poput Jacka Bennyja, Amosa i Andyja, Mercury Theatrea i drugih, WCCO je radio i mnoge vlastite lokalne produkcije poput nevjerojatno popularnih “Tena i Tim ”. WCCO je uključivao široku mješavinu glazbe koja se naginjala “Middle of the Road ” sve do 1980 -ih, kada se popis za reprodukciju više okrenuo suvremenosti za odrasle. Glazba se postupno ukidala početkom 1990 -ih, kada je WCCO postao glavna vijest/razgovor.

Tek krajem 1930 -ih, a osobito početkom 1940 -ih, vijesti su postale sve prisutnije na postaji. Cedric Adams i njegove vijesti postali su svačiji izvor informacija. Događaji diljem svijeta počeli su uvelike utjecati na vijesti Minnesotanaca i vijesti WCCO -a (zajedno s dnevnim vijestima CBS -a). Od napada na Pearl Harbor, do napada na Normandiju na dan D do kraja rata u Japanu, WCCO je postao izvor gornjih srednjih zapada za svjetske vijesti. Na lokalnoj sceni rođena je WCCO Newsroom koja je pokrenula karijeru nekih od najboljih novinara u zemlji. Eddie Gallaher, Harry Reasoner, Jergen Nash, Dick Champman, Eric Eskola,, Jeff McKinney, Steve Murphy i mnogi, mnogi drugi donijeli su slušateljima WCCO -a vijest o tome kako se to dogodilo.

WCCO je također imao dugogodišnju reputaciju kao stanica na kojoj se mogu pronaći informacije o hitnim slučajevima, osobito po teškim vremenskim uvjetima. Slušatelji bi se javljali tijekom teških vremenskih događaja i opisivali ono što vide na svojim lokacijama, nadopunjujući informacije meteorologa WCCO -a i Nacionalne meteorološke službe. WCCO je dugi niz godina bio poznat po tonu upozorenja & ldquoklaxon & rdquo za upozorenja o tornadu, što je bio namjerno iritantan, užasan zvuk dizajniran da upozori čak i najmužnije slušatelje na nadolazeću opasnost. Ovaj zvuk nastao je stavljanjem metalne trake na gumicu za brisanje i pritiskom gumba za brisanje, stvarajući ton sličan mahuni, koji je zatim snimljen za kasniju uporabu. WCCO je i dalje jedina postaja u Minnesoti s stalno zaposlenim meteorologom. Govori o važnosti vremena za WCCO i Minnesotance.

Emitiranje radija WCCO 60. obljetnice

Danas su osobe WCCO -a dugogodišnji kolumnist Star Tribunea Sid Hartman koji je sada u eteru od 1955., voditelj jutarnje emisije Dave Lee i meteorolog Mike Lynch, John Hines, Chad Hartman, John Williams, Mike Max, Jordana Green i Al Malmberg.

John Williams

U redakciji WCCO radija nalaze se Steve Simpson, Adam Carter, Susie Jones, Edgar Linares, Laura Oakes, Jennifer Lewerenz, Al Schoch i direktorica vijesti Daphne Adato.

Zdjela s ružama 1962

WCCO je trenutno novi dom košarke Minnesote Timberwolves i Sveučilišta St. Thomas Football, ali tijekom godina nije bilo sportskog događaja u Minnesoti. WCCO u nekom trenutku nije emitiran.

Vraća se sve do 1924. godine kada se nogometna momčad Sveučilišta Minnesota Gopher borila protiv Illinois Fighting Illinija i njihove mlade zvijezde Red Grangea. Gophers i njihov moćni nogometni tim tog su dana uzrujali velikog “Galloping Ghost ” i Illini. Bio je tu i novi stadion za slavlje! Memorijalni stadion, počast vojnicima koji su se borili u Prvom svjetskom ratu otvoren je te jeseni. WCCO je bio tamo. Glasovi su bili impresivni kao i ekipa. Legendarna bučnost Halsey Halla, strast i udobnost slušanja Raya Christensena u subotu popodne, učinili su da Minnesota sveučilišni nogomet mora slušati za sve Minnesotance. Tijekom godina, Gophers su dominirali lokalnom sportskom scenom, osvojivši državna prvenstva 1934., 1935., 1936., 1940., 1941. i na kraju, 1960. Tada su se stvari promijenile.

Godine 1961. Minnesota je postala prvoligaš. Blizanci i Vikinzi došli su u grad. Otvorena prerija u Bloomingtonu postala je dom Metropolitenskog stadiona i rođeno je novo doba. Od gotovo prve utakmice, pa sve do posljednje utakmice na WCCO -u 2006., tamo je bio Herb Carneal. On je bio glas Twins Baseballa i proveo je 45 godina u kabini pridruživši mu se Halsey Hall, Ray Scott, Ray Christensen, Joe Angell, John Gordon, Dan Gladden i drugi. Herb je sve vidio od Ubojice i Tony-Oa preko Carew-a i “Snapper Mow-em-Down Inningsa ”, do Pucka i Hrbeka, prvenstva, porasta na gubitke, ponovnog rođenja sa Santanom i Toriijem. “Hvala vam Johne i vrlo dobra večer vama ” započela je toliko noći play-by-play da je nemjerljivo koliko je ljudi Herb dotaknuo. Preminuo je neposredno prije početka sezone 2007., uživajući u posljednjem proljetnom treningu.

U 2018. godini WCCO s oduševljenjem dočekuje Twins Baseball na radijskim eterima WCCO radija!

Za razliku od 46 godina Twins Baseball -a i 86 godina Gopher nogometa, Vikinzi su tada otišli. Onda je opet došlo. Zatim opet lijevo. Zatim su se vratili. Zatim su opet otišli. No, kroz te godine, Vikinzi su pružili milijun uzbuđenja. Prve godine kada je Tarkenton trčao za njegov život dovele su do godina Super Bowla 70 -ih i 8217 -ih. 80 ’s i 90 ’s susreli su se s dobrim timovima koji nikada nisu mogli prebroditi grb. Tada je Randy Moss uletio u grad. Tim se činio nepobjedivim. Sve dok nisu pobijeđeni. I Vikinzi su, opet, zakazali. Ipak, Minnesotanovi i dalje krvare ljubičasto. WCCO je bio tu sa slušateljem, živio je i umirao sa svakom sezonom koja je padala.

Godine 1969. WCCO je doveo slušateljima (i iskušanim i pravim ljubiteljima hokeja u cijeloj državi) potpuno novu momčad. Minnesota North Stars postao je dio prve ekspanzije koju je liga napravila od svog početka. Veliki Al Shaver i veliki Steve Cannon bili su tu da vam iz noći u noć donesu sve golove, obrane, igre moći, borbe i hokejašku akciju. Zatim su zvijezde otišle u Teksas, a Minnesota je ponovno ostala bez i NHL tima. Lokalni čelnici proveli su sljedećih nekoliko godina u potrazi za rješenjem. Nova zgrada i novi tim u St. Paulu rođeni su 2000. Počevši s prvim nacrtom za tim 1999. godine, tamo je bio WCCO. Emitiranje Wild igara od 2000. do 2011., WCCO je bio tamo s Bobom Kurtzom, Tomom Reidom i drugima.

WCCO je također bio dom Gopher Basketball s velikim Rayom Christensenom koji je pozivao igre već desetljećima. Gopher Hockey zvao se 2000. godine, taman na vrijeme za naslove nacionalnih naslova. WCCO je od 2011. godine dom Timberwolvesa, a s posvetom lokalnom sveučilišnom nogometu, bio je partner St. Thomasa, a od 2011. emitirao je i njihove utakmice.

WCCO je kroz 90 godina postojao i namjera nam je biti tamo sljedećih 90 godina i dalje. Osobnosti mogu doći i otići, vijesti se mogu promijeniti, igre i sport uvijek će biti dio nas. Ali kroz sve to želimo biti glas Minnesotanaca. Iako se povremeno možemo osvrnuti na svoju povijest, posebno na ove posebne datume obljetnice, sve ostalo vrijeme provodimo gledajući prema budućnosti. Budućnost koju vidimo je svijetla kao i naša prošlost i jedva čekamo podijeliti to sa svim svojim slušateljima. Trebalo nam je 90 godina da izgradimo ovaj odnos koji imamo s Minnesotom i bili smo oduševljeni što smo dio vaših života!


Guglielmo Marconi šalje i prima prvi radio signal 1895

Guglielmo Marconi poslao je i primio svoj prvi radio signal u Italiji 1895. Do 1899. poslao je bežični signal preko La Manchea, a 1902. primio je slovo "S", telegrafirano iz Engleske u Newfoundland. Ovo je bila prva uspješna transatlantska radiotelegrafska poruka.

Saznajte više o Guglielmu Marconiju.


Povijest nogometa na fakultetu: Značajni početnici i prekretnice

Ovo je brzi vodič kroz neke od najznačajnijih prvih i povijesnih trenutaka sveučilišnog nogometa. Godine 2019. sport je proslavio 150. obljetnicu postojanja. Prvo, verzija TL/DR:

  • Prva nogometna utakmica na koledžu odigrana je 1869. godine između Sveučilišta Rutgers i Collegea u New Jerseyju (sada poznatog kao Sveučilište Princeton).
  • Prva sveučilišna nogometna pravila napisali su 23. studenog 1876. godine u Springfieldu, Mass., Predstavnici Columbia, Harvard, Princeton i Yale.
  • Prva nogometna utakmica na radiju bila je natjecanje između Sveučilišta West Virginia i Sveučilišta Pittsburgh 8. listopada 1921., emitirano na radijskoj postaji Pittsburgh KDKA-AM.
  • Prva nogometna utakmica na televiziji bila je između Sveučilišta Fordham i Sveučilišta Waynesburg 30. rujna 1939. Utakmicu je prenosio NBC, a emitirala je na W2XBS.
  • Prva upotreba trenutne reprize tijekom nogometne utakmice na fakultetu bila je 1963. tijekom utakmice vojske protiv mornarice 7. prosinca.
  • Nogometna ljestvica na fakultetima započela je 1939. objavljivanjem prve ankete Associated Pressa. Ostali značajni sustavi rangiranja uključuju BCS (Bowl Championship Series) ljestvicu koja je započela 1998. te CFP (College Football Playoff) ljestvicu koja je započela 2014. godine.
  • Prvi Heisman trofej dodijeljen je Jayu Berwangeru sa Sveučilišta u Chicagu 1935. Nagradu je stvorio Atletski klub New York Downtown.
  • Nogometna momčad s najviše pobjeda u povijesti je Sveučilište Michigan. Wolverines su sakupili 962 pobjede od svoje prve sezone 1879.
  • Yale je osvojio najviše naslova prvaka u povijesti koledža s 18. Alabama i Princeton izjednačeni su na drugom mjestu sa po 15.
Getty Nogometna momčad Navy College 1883

Kada je bila prva nogometna utakmica na fakultetu?

Rođenje američkog nogometa dogodilo se 1869. godine na College Avenue u New Brunswicku, New Jersey. Igrala se između Sveučilišta Rutgers i Collegea u New Jerseyju (sada poznatog kao Sveučilište Princeton).

Na terenu je bilo 25 igrača za obje momčadi, a pravila su se temeljila na Londonskom nogometnom savezu, koji nije dopuštao igračima da podignu ili bace loptu. Igra je nalikovala obliku nogometa ili ragbija - nešto što bi, gledano u kontekstu današnjeg nogometa, izgledalo kao produženo petljanje s igračima koji pokušavaju udariti nogom ili udariti loptu preko gol -linije protivničke momčadi.

Utakmica je rezultirala pobjedom 6-4 za Rutgers i privukla je oko 100 gledatelja.

Kada su uspostavljena prva pravila?

Getty /> "Otac američkog nogometa", Walter Camp

Samo sedam godina nakon što je odigrana prva utakmica, predstavnici Columbia, Harvard, Princeton i Yale okupili su se kako bi predložili prva pravila onoga što je danas priznato kao američki nogomet.

Predstavnici su se sastali u Massasoit Houseu u Springfieldu, Mass., 23. studenog 1876. Tu se Walter Camp pojavio kao legendarni otac američkog nogometa. Smjernice koje su navijači danas upoznali s kampom, poput linije okršaja, poteza od središnjeg beka, sustava padova i predložili su da svaka momčad ne smije imati više od 11 igrača na terenu.

Kada je bila prva nogometna utakmica na radiju?

Dana 8. listopada 1921., jedne od prvih epizoda "Backyard Brawla", rivalstvo između Sveučilišta West Virginia i Sveučilišta Pittsburgh ušlo je u povijest, jer je igra bila prva koja se emitirala u radijskom eteru. Igra je bila na prvoj komercijalnoj radio postaji u zemlji, KDKA-AM u Pittsburghu. Pittsburgh je dobio utakmicu 21-13.

Kada je na koledžu bila prva nogometna utakmica na fakultetu?

Prva utakmica na televizijskim ekranima dogodila se 30. rujna 1939., kada je Fordham ugostio Waynesburg za otvaranje sezone. Igru je prenosio NBC na W2XBS. Fordham, tadašnji moćni nogometni program, pobijedio je 34-7. Procjenjuje se da je broj gledatelja bio između 500 i 5.000.

Kada je prvi put korištena instant repriza?

Instant repriza debitirala je na televizijskim ekranima 7. prosinca 1963. tijekom igre Army vs Navy. Produkcija je koristila stroj težak 1300 funti kako bi namotao kolut i ponovno pokazao touchdown jer je komentatorka Lindsey Nelson upozorila gledatelje: "Dame i gospodo, vojska više nije postigla pogodak!"

Kada je počela nogometna ljestvica fakulteta?

Harry How | Getty Images Levonte Whitfield slavi nakon što je zabio tijekom posljednjeg BCS nacionalnog prvenstva u siječnju 2014.

Prva ljestvica Associated Pressa objavljena je 1936. Na ljestvici je bilo 20 timova i pomoglo se u određivanju nogometnog prvaka na fakultetu. Minnesota je bila prva momčad koja je na kraju sezone zasjela na ljestvicu AP -a, postavši prvakom u nogometu 1936. godine.

Bowl Championship Series (BCS) nastala je 1998. BCS je integrirao sustav koji je na kraju sezone spojio prvih 10 timova u igrama u zdjelicama, uključujući okupljanje timova broj 1 i 2 u nacionalnom BCS-u. prvenstvena utakmica. Prva utakmica BCS nacionalnog prvenstva prikazivala je Tennessee koji je pobijedio državu Florida sa 23-16.

College Football Playoff (CFP) nastao je 14 godina nakon uspostave BCS -a. Odbor CFP-a svaki tjedan rangira momčadi 1-25, slično kao AP i BCS ljestvice prije nego što odrede četiri najbolje momčadi nakon posljednjeg tjedna igre. Četiri najbolje momčadi potom se sučeljavaju u doigravanju gdje prvoplasirana momčad igra s četvrtoplasiranom, a drugoplasirana s trećeplasiranom. Pobjednici se zatim međusobno igraju u finalu CFP -a kako bi odredili prvaka. Prva utakmica nacionalnog prvenstva CFP-a suprotstavila je Ohio State protiv Oregona 2014. Ohio State je pobijedio, 42-20.

Jaime Squire/Getty Glavni trener države Ohio Urban Meyer podiže trofej prvaka CFP -a nakon što je njegova momčad u siječnju 2015. osvojila prvo nacionalno prvenstvo u doigravanju College Football.

Kada je dodijeljen prvi trofej Heisman?

Nagrada Heisman Trophy dodijeljena je 1935. godine, a članovi njujorškog Downtown Athletic Cluba (DAC) prvu su uručili Jayu Berwangeru sa Sveučilišta Chicago. Trofej je dobio ime po Johnu W. Heismanu 1936. 2. prosinca 1975., Ohio State koji je trčao unatrag Archie Griffin postao je prvi i jedini igrač koji je osvojio Heisman Trophy u uzastopnim sezonama.

Dobitnici trofeja Heisman: Povijest

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2009 Mark Ingram Jr. Alabama RB
2008 Sam Bradford Oklahoma QB
2007 Tim Tebow Florida QB
2006 Troy Smith Država Ohio QB
2005 Reggie Bush* Južna Kalifornija RB
2004 Matt Leinart Južna Kalifornija QB
2003 Jason White Oklahoma QB
2002 Carson Palmer Južna Kalifornija QB
2001 Eric Crouch Nebraska QB
2000 Chris Weinke Država Florida QB
1999 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
1998 Ricky Williams Teksas RB
1997 Charles Woodson Michigan CB/povratnik
1996 Danny Wuerffel Florida QB
1995 Eddie George Država Ohio RB
1994 Rašan Salaam Colorado RB
1993 Charlie Ward Država Florida QB
1992 Gino Torretta Miami QB
1991 Desmond Howard Michigan WR/povratnik
1990 Ty Detmer BYU QB
1989 Andre Ware Houston QB
1988 Barry Sanders Država Oklahoma RB
1987 Tim Brown Notre Dame WR
1986 Vinny Testaverde Miami QB
1985 Bo Jackson Auburn RB
1984 Doug Flutie Bostonski koledž QB
1983 Mike Rozier Nebraska RB
1982 Herschel Walker Gruzija RB
1981 Marcus Allen Južna Kalifornija RB
1980 George Rogers Južna Karolina RB
1979 Charles White Južna Kalifornija RB
1978 Billy Sims Oklahoma RB
1977 Earl Campbell Teksas RB
1976 Tony Dorsett Pitt RB
1975 Archie Griffin Država Ohio RB
1974 Archie Griffin Država Ohio RB
1973 John Cappelletti Penn State RB
1972 Johnny Rodgers Nebraska WR/RB
1971 Patt Sullivan Auburn QB
1970 Jim Plunkett Stanford QB
1969 Steve Owens Oklahoma FB
1968 O.J. Simpson Južna Kalifornija HB
1967 Gary Beban UCLA QB
1966 Steve Spurrier Florida QB
1965 Mike Garrett Južna Kalifornija HB
1964 John Huarte Notre Dame QB
1963 Roger Staubach Mornarica QB
1962 Terry Baker Država Oregon QB
1961 Ernie Davis Sirakuza HB/LB/FB
1960 Joe Bellino Mornarica HB
1959 Billy Cannon LSU HB
1958 Pete Dawkins Vojska HB
1957 John David Crow Texas A & ampM HB
1956 Paul Hornung Notre Dame QB
1955 Howard Cassady Država Ohio HB
1954 Alan Ameche Wisconsin FB
1953 Johnny Lattner Notre Dame HB
1952 Billy Vessels Oklahoma HB
1951 Dick Kazmaier Princeton HB
1950 Vic Janowicz Država Ohio HB/P
1949 Leon Hart Notre Dame Kraj
1948 Doak Walker SMU HB
1947 Johnny Lujack Notre Dame QB
1946 Glenn Davis Vojska HB
1945 Doc Blanchard Vojska FB
1944 Les Horvath Država Ohio QB/HB
1943 Angelo Bertelli Notre Dame QB
1942 Frank Sinkwich Gruzija HB
1941 Bruce Smith Minnesota HB
1940 Tom Harmon Michigan HB
1939 Nile Kinnick Iowa HB/QB
1938 Davey O'Brien TCU QB
1937 Clint Frank Yale HB
1936 Larry Kelley Yale Kraj
1935 Jay Berwanger Chicago HB

Tko je osvojio najviše utakmica u povijesti fakultetskog nogometa?

Iako je fakultetski nogomet počeo s Rutgersom i Princetonom, par timova sa srednjeg zapada pobijedilo je u većini utakmica. Ulazeći u sezonu 2020., Michigan nosi krunu s 962 pobjede, slijedi rival Ohio State s 923 pobjede, a zatim Yale s 917 pobjeda. Alabama i Texas slijede Yale sa po 916 pobjeda. Notre Dame i Oklahoma također su zaključane čak i s 908 pobjeda, a Nebraska iza njih s 902. Penn State i Južna Kalifornija zaokružuju deset najuspješnijih programa s 898 pobjeda za Nittany Lions i 847 za Trojance.

Što se tiče broja nacionalnih prvenstava, Yale je na vrhu liste, a slijede ga Alabama i Princeton.

Ostale značajne prekretnice u fakultetskom nogometu

  • 1916. Fritz Pollard postao je prvi afroamerički nogometaš koji je sudjelovao u Rose Bowlu. Pollard je nastavio živjeti životom nogometa, jer će postati prvi Afroamerikanac koji je postao glavni trener NFL-a 1921. godine (još kada su treneri bili u pitanju), a nastavit će i kao prvi Afroamerikanac koji je igrao bek u NFL -u 1923.
  • 7. listopada 1916., Georgia se lansirala u povijest sveučilišnih nogometnih knjiga jer su srušili Cumberland College s nevjerojatnih 222-0. Nijedna druga utakmica nije se približila ovom izbijanju, jer je Georgia Tech postigao 32 touchdowna, a Cumberland je napravio 15 izgubljenih lopti.
  • NCAA je 1958. primijenio pravilo koje dopušta pretvorbe u dvije točke. Uvedeno je pravilo kako bi se pokušalo povećati bodovanje i održati ravnoteža između napadačke igre i obrambene igre. Manevar nakon dodira iskušavan je 51,4 posto vremena tijekom te prve sezone.
  • Godine 1966. Notre Dame i broj 2 Michigan State slavno su izjednačili 10-10 tijekom utakmice na kraju sezone, što je na kraju odredilo prvaka sezone 1966. godine. Smatra se jednom od najkontroverznijih utakmica u povijesti koledža, trener Notre Damea Ara Parseghian odlučio je dopustiti da sat radi od 1:10 do nule iako je Notre Dame imao loptu pri izjednačenoj utakmici 10-10. Nakon utakmice, Notre Dame je nastavio s porazom nad Južnom Kalifornijom, završivši sezonu 9-0-1, a većinom je glasova izabran za prvaka NCAA-e.
  • Krajem 1990-ih i početkom 2000-ih, dvije su igračice ubacile mjesto u povijest kao prve dvije žene koje su osvojile bodove tijekom nogometne utakmice na fakultetu. Liz Heaston, jer je Williamette 1997. uspješno izbacila dva dodatna boda za svoj tim. Williamette je tada bila škola NAIA-e, ali je sada izvan Divizije III. Godine 2001. Ashley Martin ubacila je tri dodatna boda za Jacksonville State kao prvu ženu koja je postigla rezultat tijekom nogometne utakmice koledža Divizije I.

Spencer Parlier radio je u CNN-u, Heavy Inc. i WFSU-FM. Njegovo pisanje i produkcija također su se pojavili na CNN.com, Heavy.com i Floridskom javnom radiju. Pratite ga na Twitteru @ParlOfWisdom.

Stavovi na ovoj stranici ne odražavaju nužno stajališta NCAA -e ili njenih institucija članica.


Gledajte kako se Zemljina povijest igra na nogometnom igralištu

Grant Ernhart surađuje s američkom biatlonskom reprezentacijom pa puno vremena provodi među snježnim planinama. Sa kanadskih stjenovitih planina postavio je pitanje Skunk Bearu, znanstvenom YouTube kanalu NPR -a.

"Stojim pored nekih planina starih milijune godina", rekao je Ernhart, "a Zemlja je sama stara 4,5 milijardi godina. Kako uopće mogu obmotati svoj um toliko dugo?"

Teško je to pitanje. Ljudski je život tako kratak u usporedbi sa životom planete. No, odlučili smo da je savršeno mjesto za rješavanje ovog problema perspektive bilo na nogometnom igralištu.

Sveučilište Morgan State u Baltimoreu, Md., Preuzmemo njegov stadion jednog jesenskog popodneva prije treninga, a mi smo iskoristili rešetku kao ogromnu vremensku crtu. Udaljenost između krajnjih zona-100 metara-predstavljala bi Zemljinu povijest od 4,5 milijardi godina. Svaki centimetar bio je 1,3 milijuna godina. Dok smo polako marširali poljem, putujući kroz vrijeme, označili smo mjesta koja odgovaraju razdoblju kada su na scenu stigle različite vrste stvorenja - prvo jednostavne stanice, zatim gljive, ribe, dinosauri, sisavci i, na kraju, Homo sapiens.

Ideju za ovu metaforu o nogometnom polju dobili smo od profesora Eric Kirbyja sa Sveučilišta State University u Oregonu. Možete ga slušati kako opisuje dugu povijest Stjenovitih planina dok obilazite njegove vrhove prekrasnim 360 stupnjeva.

Koliko se ljudi pojavljuju blizu krajnje zone? Pratite putovanje od 100 metara u našem videu na vrhu ovog posta kako biste saznali.

Imate li svoje vlastito znanstveno pitanje? Koristite ovaj obrazac da ga pošaljete na naš način. Svaki drugi utorak odgovarat ćemo na pitanja zajednice Skunk Bear NPR -a.


49ers Football on Air

49ers vs. Bears na KYA (1. studenog 1953. 24 minute):

49ers vs. Browns na KYA -i (15. studenog 1953. 31 minuta):

Bud Foster je na mikeside-u zbog ovih isprepletanih ulomaka iz dviju igara u studenom 1953. emitiranih preko San Francisca i KYA-e (1260 AM). Vjeruje se da izvorni snimci potječu s transkripcijskih diskova.

Bob Fouts i Lon Simmons nazivaju akciju dok mladi John Brodie silazi s klupe u olakšanju Y.A. Tittle i pokušava izazvati povratak 49ersa protiv moćne kuće Baltimore Colts.

Jedna od najpoznatijih predstava u povijesti NFL -a: Lon Simmons opisuje radnju na KSFO -u dok Jim Marshall iz Vikinga iz Minnesote pokucava petru od 49er i pretrčava udaljenost - u pogrešnom smjeru, postižući sigurnost za Niners.

Akcija Wrigley Fielda u četvrtoj četvrtini u kojoj John Brodie (28 za 54, 327 jardi) okuplja 49erse iz deficita od deset bodova protiv Georgea Halasa, trenera Chicago Bearsa. Ovo emitiranje na radijskoj mreži 49ers/Golden West, s Lon Simmons i Hughom McElhennyjem u kabini, snimljeno je izvan etera putem KBEE -a (970 AM i 103,3 FM) u Modestu. Uključuje “Press Box Review ” izvješće nakon utakmice sa Simmonsom i 49erskim obrambenim trenerom Jimom Davidom.

Kratak ulomak igre Bears-Niners na Candlesticku. Lon Simmons opisuje radnju, a popularni jutarnji čovjek KSFO -a Gene Nelson daje boju.

Posljednje četiri minute i 54 sekunde utakmice NFC prvenstva između 49ersa i Dallas Cowboysa, s Don Kleinom (play-by-play) i Wayneom Walkerom (u boji) s mikrofona na San Franciscu i KCBS-u od 50.000 W (740 AM) , dok Joe Montana izaziva Niners do nevjerojatne pobjede s leđa, koja je kulminirala spektakularnim dodavanjem do Dwighta Clarka. Uključuje pokrivenost nakon utakmice iz slavne svlačionice 49er vezane za Super Bowl.

- Izložba uključuje tekst i zvuk.
- Samo audio prezentacija.
- Poštena do loša kvaliteta zvuka.
- Uređeno ili djelomično emitiranje.
DA - Ljubaznošću Dannyja Angottija (Atomic Productions).
RT - Ljubaznošću Rona Tamma.


Povijest radija i nogometa - Povijest



ŽAO, RASPRODANO -
Radiopovijesni kalendar za povijest radija za 2021



John Schneider doživotni je radijski povjesničar i suradnik za povijest Kalifornijskog povijesnog radijskog društva. Doprinosi redovitim člancima o povijesti radija za "Radio World" i "The Spectrum Monitor", a autor je i dvije knjige Arcadia Publishing, "Bay Area Radio" i "Seattle Radio".

Ovo je neprofitna web stranica stvorena u obrazovne i povijesne svrhe. Članci koji se ovdje nalaze zaštićeni su autorskim pravom Johna F. Schneidera osim ako je navedeno. Osim ako je navedeno, operator ove web stranice ne polaže pravo na autorska prava ili vlasništvo nad bilo kojim fotografskim slikama koje se ovdje nalaze. Takve se slike reproduciraju u niskoj ili srednjoj razlučivosti i sastoje se uglavnom od slika bez zahtjeva ili "siročadi" na kojima je vlasnik autorskih prava preminuo ili je nepoznat. Oni se pojavljuju na ovoj web stranici pod doktrinom "poštene upotrebe" američkog zakona o autorskim pravima, koja dopušta upotrebu materijala zaštićenog autorskim pravima u svrhu stipendiranja, arhiviranja i istraživanja. Sve osobe koje žele umnožiti ili na drugi način koristiti slike na ovoj web stranici čine to na vlastitu odgovornost.


Prva nogometna utakmica na televiziji odigrana je 30. rujna 1939. godine

Teško je zamisliti da je nogomet na televiziji - sastavni dio današnje američke kulture - započeo s tako skromnim počecima.

30. rujna 1939. Fordham je odigrao utakmicu otvaranja sezone kod kuće protiv Waynesburga. Igra je trebala biti zagrijavanje za Fordhama, tadašnju sveučilišnu nogometnu silu.

Dok su rat u Europi i inzistiranje predsjednika Roosevelta na držanju SAD -a izvan toga dominirali naslovima vijesti, dok su 300. pobjeda Notre Damea i trčanje Yankeesa na Svjetsku seriju zauzeli sportski odjeljak, mali kutak stranice sljedećeg dana New York Times bio posvećen pobjedi domaćina protiv Waynesburga.

Jedna mala rečenica u priči s otoka Randalls pokazala se kao početak nečeg puno većeg:

“Ovnovi su do poluvremena dobro držali televizijsku utakmicu. ”

The story continued to describe how Fordham coach “Sleepy Jim” Crowley, he of Notre Dame “Four Horsemen” fame, was dissatisfied with his team’s performance, thinking his players were looking past Waynesburg toward more formidable opponents like Alabama and Tulane. But it made no further mention of the fact that a television camera was there and the game was broadcasted over the air.

Thanks to the research of Stanley Grosshandler, provided by Fordham Athletics, we now know a bit more about the beginning of football on the broadcast medium.

A pair of iconoscope cameras captured the action and sent a signal to a relay station, which sent it on to the Empire State Building to be broadcast via RCA and NBC on W2XBS, an experimental station started for the World’s Fair in New York City that year. Estimations of the television audience vary from 500 to 5,000, while 9,000 attended in person.

Quick Facts
Što First televised football game
Tko Fordham vs. Waynesburg
Kada 30-Sep-39
Gdje Triborough Stadium, Randalls Island, NYC
Broadcast By NBC on W2XBS
Gledatelji Estimations vary from 500-5,000
Proizlaziti Fordham won 34-7

This wasn’t the first sports broadcast utilizing the new technology. Earlier that year, NBC televised a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton. Worldwide, sports on television started with the 1936 Berlin Olympics. But this was a first for football. Later on in the year, NBC carried both NFL and other college games.

For the participants of the game, it wasn’t much more of a significant occasion than the Times made it out to be. Grosshandler relayed Fordham fullback Dom Principe:

“The fact that the game was being televised had no significance to those of us playing,” Principe said. “Waynesburg had been considered sort of a warm-up, and we reacted accordingly. I do recall that we apparently had regarded them too lightly because they scored the first touchdown. But it is rather difficult to remember anything different about the first TV game.”

Then there is the account of game official Jack McPhee:

“As we walked out I saw a vehicle that looked like a boxcar in the southwest corner of the field on the running track. It was near the 10- or 15-yard line. There was a camera on a tripod near it. I looked at it briefly and then got to my business of getting ready for the game.”

McPhee continued, “When I got home, I told my wife the game had been on TV. She said, ‘What is it? How does it work?’”

As for the game itself, Fordham won 34-7. Crowley's Rams surrendered a surprise early touchdown before running away with it. Bill Stern, a well-known radio announcer, called the game. Television was not ideal for Stern's career, however — often his radio commentary would not reflect the exact events of the game. His habits of exaggeration and dramatization did not translate so well with audiences on the new medium.

NBC was said to have invested $100,000 in the project, bringing in little in return. But dedication to football on television continued, bringing about growth and audiences that could not have been imagined by the first participants.

Eric Vander Voort has covered college sports for NCAA.com since 2013.

The views on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the NCAA or its member institutions.


History of Radio and Football - History

SOME HISTORY OF BIRMINGHAM TV.


One of the first ID slides for Channel 13, 1949.

ca. 1953 matchbook cover from the short period between Storer's purchase of WBRC and the change to CBS.

Election night 1952 on WBRC-TV. Here we see the high-tech "white chalk on blackboard" graphics at work. Loveman's Department Store sponsored this broadcast, and to the left of Loveman's script logo is "NBC - Channel 4" Two months later, WBRC-TV moved to its present location, Channel 6. (courtesy of the Bill Bolen collection)

Channel 13 had a showy remote truck in the mid '50s, complete with NBC logo. I gotta wonder how secure those big numerals were. I'd hate to be on the highway only to have one break off and head toward my windshield. How would that look on the coroner's report? "Cause of death: impaling by a giant '1'" (courtesy of Tim Hollis)

Television first came to Birmingham in 1949, when the city became home to not one but TWO stations. The first was put on the air by "The Voice of Alabama", WAPI radio. Channel 13, WAFM-TV (named after WAPI's FM station) was the first in Alabama to begin broadcasting. Soon afterward, WBRC radio launched its TV station on July 4th, in the building on Red Mountain once occupied by its defunct FM station. WBRC-TV initially began broadcasting on channel 4, but in the early '50s would move to its present home, channel 6. This was due to interference in north Alabama with WSM-TV in Nashville, also on channel 4.

Initially, WAFM-TV 13 was affiliated with CBS (as was the radio parent, WAPI). WBRC-TV 4, like its radio station, was part of NBC. Some ABC programming aired on channel 13. Programs from the DuMont Network, such as Captain Video, were seen on channel 6.

WBRC's stately home atop Red Mountain, as shown in this 1954 photo. It was built to the specs of then owner Storer Broadcasting. The white building behind it is the old facility . it originally was built for the short-lived WBRC-FM in the late '40s.

Today, this spectacle in architecture continues to house WBRC "Fox 6" in the present day.

Behind it all is the huge red "WBRC" sign which still serves as a landmark atop the mountain.
(courtesy of Tim Hollis)

In the very beginning, all programming was local, with network programs coming in via film. It would be several years before both 4 and 13 "got on the cable" -- that is, Birmingham becoming linked to the network lines from CBS and NBC. ABC, still a weak and struggling network, continued to deliver some network offerings via kinescope (a method in which a live video image could quickly be converted to film for later rebroadcast or for archiving).

In 1953, WBRC-TV -- now on channel 6 -- was bought by Storer Broadcasting, which built a beautiful mansion-like structure atop Red Mountain (this was because of Storer's reputation of "elegance" and "first class facilities"). A year later, WBRC signed an affiliation agreement with CBS. NBC programming moved over to channel 13 (which had just changed its call letters to WABT . Alabama's Best in Television), and channel 6 was now Birmingham's outlet for CBS. If you're following along, this would be the second network for channel 6. This gets important later.

. Mid '50s logo for WABT channel 13. Due to a series of ownership changes in the early '50s, Birminghamske vijesti no longer owned WSGN and was now co-owned with WAPI-WAFM-WABT . hence the newspaper reference.


A great full-set shot of WABT-TV's newscast in 1954. This has the early makings of the current-day "news team" concept!
The second guy from the left has a desk plate reading "EDITOR and HOST" the desk on the right suggests a synergy with Birminghamske vijesti, owned by Channel 13 parent Newhouse. On the wall behind him is a sign reading "Photos courtesy Birminghamske vijesti"
And check out those humongous lights! Early TV studios were quite the sweatbox back then.
(courtesy of Tim Hollis)

In the mid '50s, an attempt was made to launch a third television station. The owners of WSGN applied for channel 42, and tried to compete. Herb Coleman, former engineer at WBMG-TV, recalled, "Bill Dubois, a Chicago film salesman, heard the channel was open and came to Birmingham to strike up a deal with the owners of WSGN to put the station on the air. Papa Doobee, as we called him, was a great guy. I was working for James W. Clary Co., a wholesale radio and TV parts store, at the time. We had never sold UHF converters or antennas for any other station until WBMG went on the air. When they hit the air we sold them like hot cakes. I went to work for TV-42 in January of 1971 and remained there until November of 1991."

A curious side note to the ill-fated WSGN-TV attempt: a deal was attempted with WCBI-TV in Columbus, Miss. for them to give up their current Channel 4 assignment (given to them after WBRC-TV moved to Channel 6 in 1953) and move 4 leđa to Birmingham! That fell through, and after selling the construction permit to Johnston Broadcasting, licensee of WJLD-AM & WJLN-FM radio, and taking on the provisional callsign WJLN-TV, the effort died. Birmingham would continue with its two commercial stations, 6 and 13.

Meanwhile, Storer Broadcasting, in a grand gesture, donated equipment and transmitting facilities for an educational television station. From that act of generosity begat WTIQ channel 7 (now WCIQ), atop Mount Cheaha east of Birmingham. Then came WBIQ channel 10 in Birmingham. These two stations interconnected formed Alabama ETV, the very first educational/public TV network in the country! To this day, all statewide and regional Public TV systems use the Alabama model.

1957 was a year in which several local television programs and personalities began long stretches of popularity and acclaim. WBRC-TV debuted two early-morning shows: Country Boy Eddy, with country crooner Eddy Burns, and The Morning Show, hosted by a young guy named Tom York. Both were on the air for over three decades Tom York's show even set a record for the longest-running local morning program. Country Boy Eddy's show was a hangout for many aspiring country musicians, including a local beautician with a crazy dream . one Tammy Wynette, rest her soul.

Next door at channel 13, Cliff Holman was coming off of a short-lived tenure with his first program, Tip Top Clubhouse (sponsored by Tip Top Bread), and began to settle in as the host of Cartoon Clubhouse. His entry into TV earned him a nickname that remains with him today: Cousin Cliff. Cartoon Clubhouse evolved into 13's wildly successful afternoon "kiddie show" of the 1960s featuring Cliff, Popeye and The Three Stooges. Birmingham-based author Tim Hollis wrote a throrough history of Cliff Holman's career in television . Cousin Cliff: 40 Magical Years in Television (Campbell's Publishing, 1991). For more information about this book, shoot an e-mail to Tim. (be sure to replace the words "at" and "dot" with their proper symbols before hitting 'send')

Also in the late '50s, Storer Broadcasting sold WBRC radio and TV to Taft Broadcasting Company out of Cincinnati, Ohio.

1957 advert for The Morning Show. Tom York is the guy seated, and in standard "civvie" attire. Behind Tom is the Jerry Woodard Band - with Bobby Mizzell at far left and Jerry Woodard next to him. Prema Dave Culberson (who provided this info - thanks, by the way), Woodard's band played at Pappy's Club and at the Allstate Club on Highway 78 west.
(picture courtesy of Bill Bolen)
1955: Cousin Cliff Holman's first TV show on channel 13! Pictured with Cliff were puppet "co-stars" Kim & Corky.
(courtesy of Tim Hollis from the collection of Cliff Holman)

The early 1960s brought with it a time of turbulence for Birmingham, and local television acted somewhat on what was going on around them. WBRC-TV was affiliated with CBS, the #1 network at the time. In spite of this, channel 6 dropped CBS, and signed an affiliation agreement with ABC, effective March 1, 1961 . marking the third network affiliation for the station (as I said, this will be relevant later).

Channel 6's move was quite surprising ABC was a substantially weak third network and had very few hit shows on its schedule. The station cast aside the security of CBS to align exclusively with a network that truly was the UPN or WB of its day. The reason is due to a massive realignment of stations in WBRC's parent company, Taft Broadcasting, to ABC. The head of Taft had a close friendship with Len Goldenson, the Chairman of ABC . and this change amounted to a tremendous vote of confidence to a struggling, last-place ABC..

Rumors abounded about another reason: in May 1961, Howard K. Smith's controversial documentary Who Speaks For Birmingham? led to his being fired from CBS (he would later join ABC), and didn't exactly win friends and influence people in this area. But the Channel 6 defection from ABC was unconnected with this documentary. It aired in May WBRC-TV's affiliation agreement with ABC was signed and dated March 1, 1961, more than two months prior to the documentary.


(photo courtesy of Greg Glenn)

(from the WCOV-TV Engineering page)
"YOUR CLEAR PICTURE STATION": One truck, two networks. LEFT is a picture of WBRC's remote truck, circa 1958. Note the CBS eye in the middle of the "6". RIGHT is the same truck in about 1962, after the change to ABC. Now instead of an eye, there's the ABC logo (it resembles what would become the network's current logo at that point, the letters "abc" appeared in a giant lower-case A). I like the "6"s painted around the headlights, although I think Taft could've done without that other 6 above the grille. I don't know about you, but I wouldn't feel comfortable being followed by a truck with what looks like "666" on the front! :-/
LEFT: 1959 ad for The Morning Show from TV GUIDE.

RIGHT: From 1962, another Channel 6 advert touting its "parade of stars." Remember Marynell, the "movie girl"?

As 1961 ended, WBRC-TV was now a sole ABC affiliate, leaving channel 13 (which had switched calls - again! - to WAPI-TV in 1958) to juggle NBC and CBS. While ABC now had the incredible advantage of one of the most powerful stations and biggest coverage areas in the South through channel 6, it was a tight squeeze for WAPI-TV to shoehorn programs on the two biggest networks onto its schedule. As a result, in the 1961-66 period, a great amount of network programs -- some of them mega-hits -- were not seen in Birmingham, including Show Ed Sullivan. That's right, if you were a Beatles fan counting the minutes and seconds 'till their American debut, you were shoot-out-of-luck if you lived in Birmingham . unless you knew somebody with one mean antenna to point toward Huntsville, Montgomery or Atlanta. In the area of network news, 13 strongly favored NBC . and when CBS and NBC both expanded their newscasts from 15 minutes to 30, 13 went with NBC's only -- so for a couple of years, Uncle Walt wasn't seen in Birmingham.

1965: Another attempt at putting a third commercial TV station on the air pays off. Late that year, Birmingham gets its third commercial TV station with the debut of WBMG-TV channel 42. Curiously, it's part-owned by Southern Broadcasting, parent company of WSGN (I wonder why the station didn't adopt WSGN-TV -- borrowing on a familiar, proven and successful callsign). At the onset, Channel 42 was an independent station, later to become secondary affiliated with NBC and CBS . basically picking up the shows channel 13 didn't air. WBMG's arrival meant CBS' newscasts could be watched again, and Johnny Carson would be available in The Magic City (which 13 didn't carry, either).

42's star attractions at the onset were WSGN newsman Bill Bolen, who made the move from radio to television . and WSGN "Good Guy" Neal Miller. Neal was sworn in as a Jefferson County deputy, donned a legal sheriff's uniform and became kiddie show icon Sergeant Jack, named after local fast-food mainstay Jack's Hamburgers.


Today, the "NBC-13" logo is painted as a giant mural on this side of the building, but once upon a time WAPI had a huge neon sign of its own, visible atop the mountain from both sides . much like WBRC's famous neon letters. (Courtesy of Tim Hollis)

Here's the WAPI-TV complex on Red Mountain as it was seen in this aerial shot dated February 24, 1962. Some apartments on Valley Ave. are visible in the background.
(courtesy of Bill Bolen)

COLOR, COLOR, WHO'S GOT THE C O L O R ??
Color TV arrived in increments -- it didn't require a great deal of modification to a television transmitter for "pass through" color -- that is, to have the ability to broadcast in color those network programs offered that way. Prior to 1965, the only color programs seen on Birmingham TV were network shows (and 90% of that was NBC -- CBS had very little color prior to that time, and ABC was still mostly black & white).

To broadcast local content in full color required three things: First, a color film chain (projection and slide equipment with 'multiplexer' to convert the film image to one able to be broadcast as a TV signal) to render moving and still images in color -- standard slides were used mostly for TV station IDs and program titles. But most importantly, a TV station needed COLOR CAMERAS! And those were 1) huge, and 2) expensive. Not only that, but color cameras required substantially more lighting than the advanced B/W cameras in the '60s. That meant entire TV studios had to be redone in order to originate colorcasts -- itself a costly proposition.

Oh yeah, there was also the matter of repainting backdrops. If a show was telecast in black and white, there was no need for the tedium (or expense!) of using color paint for backgrounds, right? Remember that nautical painting one saw behind Cousin Cliff on his 1960s WAPI-TV show? If you were a visitor to the program back in the day, you might've been startled by what you saw:

The famous Cousin Cliff set, prior to April 1967. That magnificent painting (done by Cliff's father, who was WAPI's art director) was done purely in shades of gray. This was the most efficient way to produce backgrounds for B/W broadcasts . but gave many an art department a nightmare workload when a station converted to color!

Astronomical expenses kept most stations outside the largest cities from going color earlier than they did. Heck, some were probably still paying off the debts incurred for the original B/W equipment in the '50s!! But when one station in a market took the plunge, it put intense pressure on the others to follow suit.

Amazingly, the first TV station in Alabama to acquire color cameras was not in Birmingham, as one might imagine. That honor went to a Montgomery station: WCOV-TV, Channel 20 . its chief engineer maintains a fantastic historical page on the station's website, including some vintage slides, and pictures of their early color cameras.

So, which Birmingham station was first with color? It depends on how you define the word "is" . heh heh, sorry. I mean, it all boils down to how one defines "first." WBMG-TV 42, according to its longtime engineer Herb Coleman, had a brand new color film chain when it signed on in 1965 -- Mr. Coleman said, "We had the first color film chain in Birmingham. We could run color films and color slides but had black and white cameras which were cast offs from channel 6." (the original chief engineer of channel 42 used to work at channel 6)

So, 42 was first with local color slike. Now, on its history page WBRC-TV boasts being the first station in Birmingham to broadcast a local color program, The Bear Bryant Show, in 1966. However, that year Bear's program - Golden Flake chips, Coca-Cola and all - originated at the studios of WCOV-TV and relayed statewide (as was Auburn's football program, which also originated in Montgomery . at WSFA-TV, channel 12).

The final answer, Regis? Channel 13! On April 3, 1967, WAPI-TV put its new color cameras and color film chain into use, and became Birmingham's first full-color TV station.

Bye bye, Black & White! April 1967: WAPI-TV goes color, heralding the big changeover in a full-page ad in Birminghamske vijesti. Recognize any faces here? You know Cousin Cliff. Remember Wendell Harris? Mid-Day hostess and "weather girl" Rosemary Lucas?
"Miss Jane" Hooper of Romper soba? Buddy Rutledge . Dick Breit . the list goes on.

The famous 'shield' logo for WAPI News was another creation of Cousin Cliff's father.
(courtesy of Greg Glenn)

By the late '60s, Birmingham television was still a crazy hodgepodge of "musical networks" -- channel 6 had ABC all to itself, but 13 and 42 shared NBC and CBS programming. Well, to be more accurate, 13 cherry-picked (usually the highest-rated) programs from both networks, leaving 42 with the 'table scraps.' A situation not corrected until May 31, 1970 . on that date, Birmingham television finally settled to a one-station/one-network arrangement! WAPI-TV chose to go exclusively with NBC (longtime 13 exec Everett Holle said this was mainly because parent company Newhouse's flagship TV station was an NBC affiliate . plus, the CEO of Newhouse was said to have loathed CBS chief William S. Paley!). So, by default, 42 inked an agreement with CBS.

If anything, this made it easier for Birmingham viewers to FIND their favorite network shows!

"AN EYE-FULL OF ENTERTAINMENT" . after years of settling for "sloppy seconds" from 13, Channel 42 starts "going steady" with CBS. A TV vodič advert makes it known. (The drawing in this ad is by Howard Cruse, who worked as a puppeteer on Narednik Jack Show. Howard has generously offered some Birmingham photos from his own archive, so keep a CBS-eye out for those on this site!!) 1971 advertisement for Channel 42, in the midst of Birmingham's centennial celebration . touting its "new, modern studio and office building" (from Tim Hollis)


THE SARGE.

After Cousin Cliff Holman left for Anniston, and Benny Carle headed north to Huntsville, Neal Miller was the last man standing as Sergeant Jack on WBMG (yes, he was named for the fast food entity). Nobody who watched this show in the '70s forgot the set. Lord, that set! It matched the 1969-era To Tell the Truth for its loud, colorful psychedelic feel.

The puppets, you may remember, were named Oscar (lijevo) i Wilbur. They were operated and voiced by Howard Cruse, who also served as Channel 42's art director. Sergeant Jack contined throughout the 1970s, and was on the air until 1982.

Howard Cruse soon left Birmingham for the bright lights of New York. Today he's an accomplished cartoonist. Samples of Howard's work today may be found on his personal website. [ADVISORY : If you have a low tolerance for irreverent comic art aimed at mature audiences, you may want to steer clear of Howard's 'underground'-flavored site.


The 1970s brought with it a highly competitive approach to TV news. WBRC took a dominant position with their 'news team'.


ca. 1969: Bill Bolen was the newest member of the Channel 6 team.
(L-R) Joe Langston, Bill Bolen, Tom York, Pat Gray.

"The Six Family", mid '70s: Lapels stretching from "The Club" over to Vulcan.
FRONT ROW: Donna Hamilton, Pat Gray, "Country Boy Eddy" Burns
BACK ROW: Bill Bolen, Herb Winches, Tom York, Joe Langston

I'd like to know if they tried riding those bikes up Red Mountain.
SPECIAL THANKS TO BILL BOLEN FOR THESE WONDERFUL PICTURES!

Channel 42 also had a newscast. I heard that -- stop laughing, at least give 'em half-credit for TRYING.

Former Pop Crooner/WSGN Swingin' Southern Gentleman/WAQY Beatle Burner/soon-to-be 1/2 of "TC & John Ed" TOMMY CHARLES, back when he was trying his hand at TV sports in 1974. It got to where 42's news was more of a comedy show than a straight newscast legend has it he'd often wad up scripts and throw them after reading . and one evening he supposedly let loose with balloons for no particular reason. It must've been fun to watch . that is if anybody outside of management and crew were watching.

In 1980, Parent company Newhouse sold WAPI-TV to Times-Mirror . and Channel 13 changed calls to its fourth, and present, set of letters: WVTM (it stands for V.ulcan Times Mirror). Promotional adverts soon filled the schedule: "Have you seen The New 13?"

1982: Birmingham got a new television station, WTTO Channel 21 (the calls stand for Television Twenty O.ne). If one doesn't count 42's earliest years in the mid '60s, WTTO was Birmingham's first "independent" station. For years I was under the mistaken impression that 21 was the first station in the city to affiliate with the new FOX network in 1986. Charles Collins of Helena, Ala. set me straight, and generously offered a thorough background on the Magic City area "indies".

Actually, WTTO was not the first station in Birmingham to affiliate with the Fox network. That honor goes to WDBB-17. During the mid '80's Channel 17, who originally signed on as an independent targeting Tuscaloosa, tried to become the second independent station in the Birmingham market, erecting a tall tower near the Jefferson-Tuscaloosa county line and getting included on all the cable systems in Jefferson and Shelby Counties.

If I remember correctly, Channel 17 spent tons of money on first run syndicated programming, picked up daytime network programs not cleared by Channel 6, and attempted to launch a 9:00 p.m. newscast. The newscast didn't last that long. Primarily because of signal interference from the mountains in the Birmingham area (cable penetration then wasn't what it is now), people living east of downtown couldn't pick up Channel 17 that well. It was about at that time that WNAL-44 signed on in Gadsden as a repeater of WDBB. I think, though, that Channel 44's original tower was located too far away from Birmingham to cover anything except for the extreme eastern area of Jefferson County.

Desperate to attract viewers, since Channel 21 had quickly established themselves as the local alternative to Channels 6, 13 and 42, WDBB-17/WNAL-44 aligned themselves with Fox, and carried the ill-fated Late Show with Joan Rivers when it debuted on Fox in 1986. They remained the Birmingham area's Fox stations until WDBB threw in the towel in '91 and returned to broadcasting from their original tower in Tuscaloosa. It was then that Channel 21 became a temporary parent station for both Channel 17 and 44. If I remember correctly, all three stations broadcast the exact same schedule from sign-on to sign-off for about a year or so.

After a while, Channels 17 and 44, who were both still Fox affiliates, began broadcasting separate schedules. Both stations remained Fox affiliates until the "Big Switch" in '96. After the switch, Channel 44 became the new home for CBS in the Gadsden-Anniston market until '98, when it moved to its present tower in St. Clair County and became Birmingham's PAX affiliate as WPXH-44. Like Channel 21, Channel 17 spent a brief time as an independent station after the switch. Both stations affiliated with the WB network in '97, and by '98, WDBB was once again reduced to being a full-time repeater of WTTO-21.

By the way -- if you ever want to add some more comedy about a tragic station, don't forget to include some bits about the early days of Channel 68. When it signed on as WCAJ, its studios were on the campus of Samford University, ostensibly as a "family" station with a mixture of squeaky clean secular programming and some Christian programming. Before it settled into its current niche, it tried broadcasting only Christian programming, then home shopping, then Christian programming again.

A big shuffle took place with ownership changes in the mid '90s. NBC bought Channel 13 outright, changing the logo and image to the present "NBC 13." Around the same time, New World bought WBRC-TV from Great American Radio & TV (the successor company to Taft). Fox then bought New World. As expected, 6 dropped ABC and in September 1996 became a full FOX affiliate.

And HERE is where the network issue with Channel 6 becomes important. WBRC-TV began in 1949 as an NBC station. In 1954, it changed to CBS. Then to ABC in 1961. And finally to FOX in 1996. Four networks. To my knowledge, WBRC-TV Channel 6 is the only station in the country to have been affiliated with ALL FOUR MAJOR NETWORKS throughout its 50+ year history!!

The biggest event in the last decade was the creation of a brand-new TV station in 1996. Albritton Communications bought the licenses for WCFT-TV 33 in Tuscaloosa and WJSU-TV 40 in Anniston, folding both into Birmingham, dropping their respective CBS affiliations, and from the ground up created an entirely new ABC affiliate for the market, known as "Alabama's ABC 33/40." To add insult to injury, 33/40 -- with an upstart newscast -- surged ahead of Channel 42 to breathe down 6 and 13's necks. Ouch.

WBMG-TV 42 was bought by Media General, and in 1998 changed her call letters to WIAT (It's About Time), and calls itself CBS 42. An entirely different news product was debuted, but Media General -- with successful properties in other markets (including my backyard) -- had an uphill battle with Channel 42. For decades, the number 42 was a punchline -- a cursed number in the Magic City. However, CBS 42 has made substantial gains in their newscast's ratings, and according to Larry Ragan, CBS 42's News Director, the station has begun posting some #1 ratings for key newscasts . and, for the first time, truly competitive with the long-established WBRC and WVTM. Birmingham, Alabama may well be one of the hottest local markets in America in regard to the number of stations with successful newscasts.

And in 2006, NBC sold WVTM "NBC 13" to Media General . the parent company of WIAT "CBS 42." As a result, WIAT was spun off to a new owner, New Vision Television.

So that's where we stand in the present day. 6 and 13 continue to prosper amidst a landscape with more competition. 33/40 is a formidable news presence . and 42, at long last, is holding its own!

There's no better place to turn on the TV than in Birmingham.

Text by webmaster Russell Wells

EVERYTHING OLD IS NEW AGAIN . the logo for channel 13 has gone through several different looks over the years, but the present design is a nice throwback to an earlier time the typeface used here is very close to the helvetica font which 13 used in the 1976-78 time period.

THIS SECTION IS FAR FROM COMPLETE . THERE WILL BE MORE PICTURES, STORIES, AND HISTORY YET TO COME.


Autori

Football has long formed an essential ingredient of the BBC's public service remit. This study investigates the origins of this relationship in radio in order to reveal some of the formative struggles in the BBC's desire to provide outside broadcasts from the game. Drawing upon empirical evidence from the BBC's promotional material and the press from 1927-39, the article analyses issues of broadcasting rights, access and exclusivity. Taking the 1930 Cup Final radio broadcast as a case study, the article critically analyses the BBC's public service rhetoric in an economic and cultural battle with the Football Association. The article also investigates how running commentaries drew upon this public service ethos, and developed codes and practices that allowed its first practitioners to address the BBC's imagined national audience, predominantly occupied by men. It is concluded that this public service tradition of football commentary continues to pervade contemporary discourses on the game. However, these practices are increasingly under pressure by contemporary transformations in the market for television sports rights and delivery through digital technologies and pay per view.


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Komentari:

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