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Kongres zanemaruje promociju Benedikta Arnolda

Kongres zanemaruje promociju Benedikta Arnolda



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19. veljače 1777. Kontinentalni kongres izglasava promicanje Thomasa Mifflina, Arthura St. Claira, Williama Alexandera, lorda Stirlinga, Adama Stephena i Benjamina Lincolna u čin general -majora. Iako su unaprjeđenja djelomično bila namijenjena uravnoteženju broja generala iz svake države, brigadni general Benedict Arnold osjećao je razočaranje što je pet mlađih časnika dobilo unaprjeđenja i, kao odgovor, zaprijetio da će dati ostavku iz vojske Patriota.

U pismu od 3. travnja 1777. general George Washington pisao je Arnoldu iz njegovog sjedišta u Morristownu u New Jerseyju i priznao da se iznenadio kad nisam vidio vaše ime na popisu general bojnika. Misleći da je izostavljanje Arnoldovog imena pogreška, Washington je obeshrabrio razočaranog Arnolda da učini bilo kakav brzopleti korak.

Na Arnoldovo zaprepaštenje, ubrzo je saznao da je njegov vrhovni zapovjednik pogriješio te je podnio ostavku Kongresu u srpnju 1777., ali ju je povukao na nagovor Washingtona. Unatoč podršci Georgea Washingtona, Arnold se i dalje osjećao nepravedno zanemarenim od strane svojih nadređenih. Konačno, 1780. Arnold je izdao svoju zemlju ponudivši britanskoj predati utvrdu u West Pointu u New Yorku koju drži Patriot. S West Pointom pod njihovom kontrolom, Britanci bi kontrolirali kritičnu dolinu rijeke Hudson i odvojili Novu Englesku od ostalih kolonija. Njegova supruga, Margaret, bila je vjerna i ne bi se protivila njegovim planovima. Međutim, njegova je zavjera osujećena, a Arnold, heroj Ticonderoge i Saratoge, postao je najpoznatiji izdajica u američkoj povijesti. Nastavio se boriti na strani Britanaca u Revoluciji, a nakon rata se vratio u Britaniju, gdje je u siromaštvu umro u Londonu 1801. godine.

PROČITAJTE JOŠ: George Washington je u svom oproštajnom obraćanju upozorio na političke sukobe


Benedikt Arnold

Profesor James Kirby Martin istražuje kako su George Washington i Benedict Arnold, nekad braća po oružju, postali ogorčeni neprijatelji.

General u Kontinentalnoj vojsci tijekom Revolucionarnog rata, Benedict Arnold služio je s odlikovanjem u nekoliko bitaka, ali je nekoliko puta prošao za unapređenja. Arnolda je tijekom njegove službe također istraživao Kontinentalni kongres i suočio se s raznim optužbama protivnika. Frustriran protivljenjem s kojim se susreo, Arnold je na kraju počeo raditi za Britance čak i dok je nastavio služiti u Kontinentalnoj vojsci. Na kraju je njegova izdaja otkrivena i Arnold je pobjegao u New York, prihvativši narudžbu u britanskoj vojsci. Arnoldovo ime postalo je sinonim za izdajničko ponašanje i možda je jedna od najzloglasnijih ličnosti u američkoj povijesti.

Benedict Arnold rođen je 1741. u uglednoj obitelji Connecticut. Arnold je većinu svoje braće i sestara izgubio zbog žute groznice, strašnih događaja koji su izazvali alkoholizam u njegovu ocu. Kao tinejdžer, Arnoldova se obitelj suočila s financijskim teškoćama. U dobi od šesnaest godina, Arnold se prijavio u miliciju i služio u Francuskom i Indijanskom ratu u sjevernom dijelu New Yorka. Tijekom 1760 -ih Arnold je započeo uspješan ljekarnički posao.

Arnoldova uloga istaknutog poduzetnika dovela ga je u izravan sukob i sa Zakonom o žigovima i sa Zakonom o šećeru, gdje je britanska vlada nastojala regulirati i oporezivati ​​kolonijalne poslovne transakcije. Arnold se pridružio Sinovima slobode i nastavio svoj posao prkoseći britanskim djelima, čime je zapravo postao krijumčar. Izabran je na mjesto kapetana u miliciji Connecticut 1775. godine, a sudjelovao je u opsadi Bostona, zauzimanju utvrde Ticonderoga i bitci kod Saratoge gdje je dobio ranu u nogu.

Unatoč ovoj službi, Arnold je bio središte neprijateljstva više časnika u Kontinentalnoj vojsci. Arnold je podnio tužbu protiv Mosesa Hazena što ga je dovelo do vojnog suda. Nakon toga, Hazen je iznio protivtužbe. Arnold se također uključio u sukobe i s Johnom Brownom i s Jamesom Eastonom. Brown je kao odgovor objavio pamflet u kojem se za Arnolda tvrdi: "Novac je Bog ovog čovjeka, i da bi ga se zasitio, žrtvovao bi svoju zemlju." 1

Nakon što je premješten radi promaknuća na mjesto general bojnika, Arnold je podnio ostavku. George Washington je, međutim, odbio prihvatiti povlačenje. Ubrzo nakon toga, Arnold je sudjelovao u bitci kod Saratoge, gdje je ponovno ranjen u lijevu nogu, istu nogu koja je prethodno bila ozlijeđena. Ubrzo nakon toga, Washington je imenovao Arnolda vojnim zapovjednikom Philadelphije, gdje su se njegovi pokušaji da profitira na svom položaju suprotstavili lokalnim dužnosnicima. Godine 1778. i 1779. Arnold je izrazio razočaranje i pesimizam u pogledu izgleda Sjedinjenih Država, a pojavili su se dokazi da se urotio s Britancima razmjenjujući osjetljive vojne podatke za novac. Iako je oslobođen vojnog suda, Washington je ukorio Arnolda, nazvavši njegovo ponašanje "nepromišljenim i neprikladnim". 2

Dobra ambicija: intervju s Nathanielom Philbrickom

Arnold je dao ostavku na svoje mjesto u Philadelphiji i na kraju dobio zapovjedništvo u West Pointu gdje je ušao u tajne pregovore s Britancima. Prenosio je novac britanskim snagama i prosljeđivao informacije koje bi pomogle Britancima u zauzimanju West Pointa, dok je oslabio obranu utvrde i prorijedio zalihe.

John Andre, Arnoldov britanski kontakt, uhvaćen je i na kraju pogubljen zbog svoje uloge u zavjeri. Arnold je za dlaku izbjegao zarobljavanje Amerikanaca i na kraju je pobjegao u Englesku. Arnold je tijekom rata služio u britanskoj vojsci, a zatim se bavio poslovima u Kanadi i Engleskoj do svoje smrti 1801. Od tada je njegovo ime postalo sinonim za moralni neuspjeh, izdaju i zlokobni vlastiti interes. Njegovo složeno naslijeđe ogleda se u neobičnom spomen obilježju u Nacionalnom povijesnom parku Saratoga. Spomen obilježje sastoji se od kipa odvojene noge u čizmi, aludirajući na Arnoldovo herojstvo u Saratogi i ranu na nozi koju je tamo zadobio. Međutim, kip ne nosi njegovo ime.

Katie Uva
Diplomski centar Gradskog sveučilišta u New Yorku

Bilješke:
1. Citirano u James Kirby Martin, Benedikt Arnold, Revolucionarni heroj: Preispitan američki ratnik (New York: NYU Press, 2000.), 324.


Kongres zanemaruje promociju Benedikta Arnolda - 19. veljače 1777. - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

Na današnji dan 1777. godine Kontinentalni kongres izglasava promicanje Thomasa Mifflina Arthura St. Claira Williama Alexandera, lorda Stirlinga Adama Stephena i Benjamina Lincolna u čin general -majora. Iako su unaprjeđenja djelomično bila namijenjena uravnoteženju broja generala iz svake države, brigadni general Benedict Arnold osjećao je razočaranje što je pet mlađih časnika dobilo unaprjeđenja i, kao odgovor, zaprijetio da će dati ostavku iz vojske Patriota.

U pismu od 3. travnja 1777. general George Washington pisao je Arnoldu iz njegovog sjedišta u Morristownu u New Jerseyju i priznao da se iznenadio kad nisam vidio vaše ime na popisu general bojnika. Misleći da je izostavljanje Arnoldovog imena pogreška, Washington je obeshrabrio razočaranog Arnolda da učini bilo kakav brzopleti korak.

Na Arnoldovo zaprepaštenje, ubrzo je saznao da je njegov vrhovni zapovjednik pogriješio te je podnio ostavku Kongresu u srpnju 1777., ali ju je povukao na nagovor Washingtona. Unatoč podršci Georgea Washingtona, Arnold se i dalje osjećao nepravedno zanemarenim od strane svojih nadređenih. Konačno, 1780. Arnold je izdao svoju zemlju ponudivši britanskoj predati utvrdu u West Pointu u New Yorku koju drži Patriot. S West Pointom pod njihovom kontrolom, Britanci bi kontrolirali kritičnu dolinu rijeke Hudson i odvojili Novu Englesku od ostalih kolonija. Njegova supruga, Margaret, bila je vjerna i ne bi se protivila njegovim planovima. Međutim, njegova je zavjera osujećena, a Arnold, heroj Ticonderoge i Saratoge, postao je najpoznatiji izdajica u američkoj povijesti. Nastavio se boriti na strani Britanaca u Revoluciji, a nakon rata se vratio u Britaniju, gdje je u siromaštvu umro u Londonu 1801. godine.


Kako su Arnoldove rane iz bitke kod Saratoge utjecale na njegov put prema izdaji američke stvari?

& QuotBoot Monument & quot na sarajevskom bojnom polju. Ovaj spomenik označava mjesto gdje je Benedikt Arnold ranjen u bitci.

Definitivno faktor. Ozbiljno ranjen u istu nogu u kojoj je zadobio prvu strašnu ranu u Quebecu, Benedict Arnold bio je ljut i nervozan tijekom više od četiri mjeseca u domoljubnoj vojnoj bolnici u Albanyju, NY. Imao je dovoljno vremena za razmišljanje koliko je patnji prošao nakon što je prešao za viši čin, goruća uvreda za dobro ime kao vrlog domoljuba, i pored toga koliko je žrtvovao u smislu korištenja vlastitog bogatstva za podršku američkoj stvari.

Štoviše, napustio je svoju unosnu karijeru kao trgovac/trgovac iz New Havena, CT. Kongres je vratio njegov čin prije Saratoge, ali ne i njegov staž. Kad je Washington u siječnju 1778., nakon velike pobjede u Saratogi, napisao još uvijek patničkog Benedikta Arnolda, da mu je Kongres konačno vratio starosnu dob, Arnold nije odmah odgovorio. Bio je bijesan što je Kongres dodijelio medalju Horaciju Gatesu kao navodnom "heroju Saratoge" kada je Arnold zapravo osigurao vodstvo na terenu u obje bitke koje su dovele Amerikance do pobjede.

Kad je Benedikt Arnold ipak odgovorio Washingtonu, rekao je da želi vrhovnom zapovjedniku dobro u njegovom "mukotrpnom zadatku" "da vidi mir i sreću u vašoj zemlji na trajnoj osnovi". U svom rastućem razočaranju, Arnold se odvajao od uzroka u koji je gubio vjeru. Ovo pismo poslao je Washingtonu u ožujku 1778., dvije i pol godine prije nego što je potpuno odustao od američke stvari.


Od general bojnika Benedikta Arnolda

U skladu s vašim savjetima Excellencysa dok sam bio u kampu, zatražio sam od Kongresa da imenuje Odbor za ispitivanje optužbi koje su protiv mene podnijele Presdt i Vijeće ove države, moj zahtjev je ispoštovan, Izvještaj Odbora koji imam uzeo je slobodu u Inclose, nakon što ga pročitate, vaša ekselencija će nesumnjivo biti iznenađen kad otkrije da je Kongres naložio Vojnom sudu da me sudi (između ostalih optužbi) za neke od onih od kojih me je njihov Odbor, potpuno i najjasnije oslobodio da bi ovo ponašanje moglo biti potrebno zbog javnog interesa, teško ga je uskladiti s osjećajima pojedinca koji je time ozlijeđen.2

G. Reed je svojom adresom držao aferu suspendiranom gotovo dva mjeseca, te je na kraju dobio prethodnu rezoluciju Kongresa, i neću sumnjati da će upotrijebiti svaki artikl za odgodu postupka pred vojnim sudom jer je to u njegovom interesu. Afera bi trebala ostati u mraku. I da bi Kongres izbjegao prodor s ovom državom, odbili su, odlučujući o izvješću svog odbora, ne sumnjam da ću dobiti pravdu od Vojnog suda, jer se svaki časnik u vojsci mora osjećati ozlijeđenim okrutnim i neviđenim postupanjem s kojim sam se susreo iz niza nitkova u Uredu. Moram iskreno počastiti vašu ekselencijo da se vojni sud može uputiti da zasjedne što je prije moguće. Ako se to može učiniti u ovom gradu, cijenit ću to kao veliku uslugu jer moje rane čine krajnje nezgodno za moje prisustvo u kampu gdje je vrlo teško nabaviti potrebne smještaje za njihov oporavak. Također će biti iznimno teško, ako ne i neizvodljivo, u Kampu proizvesti dokaze koji se nalaze u ovom gradu - ali ako služba učini apsolutno nužnim da se Sud održi u logoru, preklinjem da se to popravi što prije U slučaju da je to moguće, te da predsjednik i Vijeće ove države mogu imati takvu Obavijest, da Sud ne može biti odgođen zbog nedostatka njihovih dokaza, rudnik dokaza bit će spreman u najkraćoj obavijesti.

Kad vaša ekselencija uzme u obzir moje patnje i okrutnu situaciju u kojoj se nalazim, vaše vlastito čovječanstvo i osjećaji kao vojnika učinit će nepotrebnim sve što mogu dalje reći o temi. Gospođu Washington molim i poštujem sa osjećajima savršenog Respect & amp; Poštovanje Dr Sir vaše ekselencije ljubazni & amp; Mo. Obedt Humble Servt

1. Arnold je ostavio datum praznim, ali pismo je evidentirano kao zaprimljeno 18. travnja.

2. Arnold je 8. i 12. veljače pisao Kongresu tražeći suđenje i istragu o optužbama koje su protiv njega podignute u pismu od 25. siječnja predsjednika Vrhovnog izvršnog vijeća Pennsylvanije Josepha Reeda Kongresu, a aktom koji je Pennsylvania donijela dana 3. veljače. Kongres je 15. veljače pročitao Arnoldova pisma i odmah odlučio zamoliti GW da sazove vojni sud kako bi sudio generalu. Dana 16. veljače uputilo je Arnoldova pisma petočlanom odboru koji je već razmatrao optužbe sadržane u Reedovu pismu od 25. siječnja i suspendirao je Arnolda iz zapovjedništva u vojsci dok se ne utvrdi njegova sudbina (opis JCC-a počinje Worthington Chauncey Ford i sur., Ur. Časopisi kontinentalnog kongresa, 1774-1789. 34 sveska. Washington, DC, 1904–37. Opis završava, 13: 184, 188–89).

U priloženom primjerku “Izvješća Odbora Kongresa imenovanog za ispitivanje optužbi koje su predsjednik i Vijeće savezne države Pensilvanije iznijeli protiv generala Arnolda”, koji je potpisao predsjednik odbora William Paca, sažeti su zaključci odbora koji su prezentirani Kongres 17. ožujka: „Prva, druga, treća i peta optužba su kaznena djela protiv kojih se može suditi samo na vojnom sudu, da je četvrta optužba samo prekršaj civilne prirode i sporna samo na sudu zajedničkog prava, da je šesta sedma , i Osma optužnica su prekršaji koje ne može rješavati vojni sud ili sud općeg prava, niti podliježu bilo kojoj drugoj kazni osim nezadovoljstva Kongresa i njegovih posljedica.

„Da je Odbor dobio dokaz od strane Vrhovnog izvršnog vijeća o petoj i sedmoj tački na koju se mole ostaviti da se pozovu, da se Odbor spomenutog izvršnog vijeća više puta prijavljivao da odbija dati bilo kakve dokaze o ostatku Optužbe nakon beskorisnih prijava Tri tjedna tijekom kojih je nekoliko puta prošlo nekoliko pisama između Vrhovnog izvršnog vijeća i odbora, u kojima je pisma Vrhovnog izvršnog vijeća prijetila odboru i naplaćivala im pristrasnost.

“Odlučeno je da se za prvu i drugu optužnicu ne pojavljuju nikakvi dokazi koji bi nastojali dokazati isto, da su navedene optužbe u potpunosti objašnjene, a pojavljivanja koja nose zbog kriminala potpuno uklonjena jasnim neupitnim dokazima.

„Treća optužba koju je general Arnold prihvatio u jednoj instanci, koja će biti proslijeđena vrhovnom zapovjedniku.

“Odlučeno je da preporučeno pismo u 6. tački nije u duhu Odluke Kongresa, niti uzurpacija autoriteta.

“Odlučeno je da pismo u 7. optužnici još uvijek nije u smislu savršene uljudnosti, ali nije izraženo u smislu dostojanstva, te da je nakon postupanja Izvršnog vijeća Sd Supreeme prema generalu Sd -a Arnolda i mjera bez uzorka koje su poduzeli kako bi dobili zadovoljstvo, potpuno i apsolutno isključuje svako pravo na ustupke ili priznanje.

“Odlučeno 8. optužbom da ne postoje dokazi koji bi to dokazali. Četvrta tužba nema dokaza koji dokazuju isto i da se može rješavati samo na sudu općeg prava.

"Peta optužba koja će se prenijeti vrhovnom zapovjedniku" (DLC: GW izvješće je tiskano u opisu JCC-a započinje Worthington Chauncey Ford i sur., Ur. Časopisi kontinentalnog kongresa, 1774-1789. 34 vol. Washington, DC , 1904–37. Opis završava, 13: 324–26). Iako je odbor utvrdio da su mnoge optužbe protiv Arnolda nedokazane i kritizirao je nedostatak suradnje Pennsylvanije u istrazi, Kongres je, nastojeći zakrpiti sve veće kršenje pravila s Reedom i njegovim vijećem, ipak 3. travnja odlučio da su “pritužbe protiv generala Arnolda proslijediti njegovoj ekselenciji vrhovnom zapovjedniku, radi suđenja i o istom uredno obavijestiti izvršno vijeće te od njih zatražiti da vrhovnom zapovjedniku dostave dokaze u svom posjedu i da svi daljnji postupci budu na drugom mjestu prekinuti, osim prikupljanja i prenošenja daljnjih dokaza nakon toga vrhovnom zapovjedniku ”, drugim riječima, suđenje bi se nastavilo (opis JCC-a počinje Worthington Chauncey Ford i sur., ur. Časopisi kontinentalnog kongresa, 1774.-1789. 34 vol. Washington, DC, 1904–37. Opis završava, 13: 414–16, vidi također John Jay za GW, 12. travnja).

GW se pridržavao ove rezolucije 20. travnja naredivši vojni sud (vidi njegova pisma tog datuma Arnoldu, Johnu Jayu i Vrhovnom izvršnom vijeću Pennsylvanije). Na njegovu žalost, stvar nije tu stala, već je prerasla u dugotrajan i jadan spor koji je prijetio narušavanjem odnosa GW -a s vlašću Pennsylvanije, dok je Arnolda u isto vrijeme trajno otuđio. Dana 24. travnja Joseph Reed napisao je opširno pismo GW -u žaleći se da je pogrešno protumačio ulogu Vrhovnog izvršnog vijeća Pennsylvanije u davanju prednosti optužbama protiv zbunjenog i jednako dugačkog odgovora Arnolda GW -a od 27. travnja, koji je samo djelomično prekinuo nesporazum (vidi GW Reedu , 8. i 15. svibnja Reed za GW, 1. svibnja i Vrhovno izvršno vijeće Pennsylvanije za GW, 8. svibnja).

U međuvremenu, pokušaji GW -a da odredi rani datum suđenja, prvotno zakazan za 1. lipanj, na svakom su koraku ometani birokratskom zbrkom i neprijateljskim pokretima. Iako se sud sastao 1. lipnja tek toliko da se Arnold usprotivio prisutnosti tri njegova člana, ratno vijeće sastalo se kasnije tog dana i odlučilo odgoditi suđenje na neodređeno vrijeme zbog britanskog pomicanja uz rijeku Hudson (Vijeće rata, 1. lipnja, DLC: GW). "Ne mogu", napisao je GW Timothyju Matlacku 2. lipnja, "odrediti vrijeme zasjedanja Suda jer to mora ovisiti o neprijateljskim operacijama" (PHi: Zbirka Dreer). Sud se sastao tek 20. prosinca 1779. (vidi GW Arnoldu, 4. prosinca, DLC: GW i Opća naređenja, 19. prosinca). Presuda je donesena 26. siječnja 1780., kada je Arnolda oslobodila većine optužbi protiv njega, ali ga je proglasila krivim za nepoštivanje dužnosti na dvije relativno male točke (vidi Opće zapovijedi, 6. travnja 1780.). Kongres je potvrdio presudu 12. veljače (opis JCC-a počinje Worthington Chauncey Ford i sur., Ur. Časopisi kontinentalnog kongresa, 1774-1789. 34 sveska. Washington, DC, 1904–37. Opis završava, 16: 161–62 ), ali je čekao još mjesec dana prije nego što ga je proslijedio GW -u, koji je morao ukoriti Arnolda po općim naredbama. Učinio je to 6. travnja 1780., ali tada je šteta već bila učinjena: Arnold, bijesan zbog onoga što je smatrao urotom protiv njega, započeo je tajne kontakte s Britancima u kasno proljeće 1779. Vidjeti GW Arnoldu, 26. i 28. travnja, 7. i 15. svibnja, 2. lipnja (DLC: GW) i 4. prosinca (DLC: GW) 1779. Arnold do GW, 5., 14. i 18. svibnja i 13. srpnja (DLC: GW) 1779. i Samuel Huntington u GW, 11. ožujka 1780. (DLC: GW).


Povijest SAD -a: Benedikt Arnold: Mogao je biti pretendent

Njegovo ime odmah priziva slike izdaje uz svjetlost svijeća. No što je točno učinio Benedikt Arnold čini?

Pa, uspostavio je kontakt sa špijunima koristeći supružnikove odane prijatelje, rekao je Britancima o lokacijama pobunjeničkih trupa i zalihama kojima je zapovijedao utvrdom u West Pointu za pobunjenike, a zatim je potajno učinio sve što je mogao da ih osakati i slabosti utvrde prodao je Britancima. I to samo za početak. Nakon što je razotkrivena ta posljednja smicalica, Arnold je pobjegao na britanskom brodu prije nego što je mogao biti obješen. Britanci su prepoznali Arnoldov potencijal i dali mu prilično moćne vojne položaje - vodio je 1600 crvenih kaputa i vjernika u razornu seriju racija po Virginiji i žestok napad na pobunjeničku luku New London u Connecticutu, koju je spalio do temelja.

Ali mogao je biti američki heroj da su se njegove karte dijelile malo drugačije. Godine 1775. Arnold i Ethan Allen bili su supovjednici ekspedicije koja je zauzela utvrdu Ticonderoga. Zatim je 1777., iako brojčano nadjačan, Arnold vodio žestoku borbu za jezero Champlain, a zatim je nanio veliku štetu prije povlačenja u bitci kod Ridgefielda. A tijekom vrhunske bitke kod Saratoge, Arnold je uzeo dva za tim: britanski metak ga je pogodio u nogu, a zatim ga je slomio pod konjem koji je pao.

Dok je bio prikovan za krevet i u bolovima, Arnold je razmišljao o tome kako se stvari kreću usrano: njegovo postignuće u Ticonderogi izgubljeno je u političkoj borbi oko toga tko će uzeti zasluge za pobjedu (pobjednik: Ethan Allen), a njegovi herojski napori na jezeru Champlain i Saratoga otišli su neprepoznati budući da su tehnički bili porazi.

U veljači 1777. Kontinentalni kongres predao je Arnolda na promaknuće, dajući ga mlađem časniku. Arnold je na kraju unaprijeđen, ali Kongres mu nije dao starješinu, što znači da je i dalje bio podređen nižim časnicima.

Kako bi dodao uvredu ozljedama, Arnold se tada suočio s klevetničkom kampanjom svojih neprijatelja na Kontinentalnom kongresu (optužbe su možda bile pomalo istinite, ali svejedno). Kao vojni guverner Philadelphije, Arnold je sklapao insajderske poslovne poslove koji su profitirali od opskrbe pobunjeničke vojske. Kad su lokalni trgovci i političari prosvjedovali zbog njegovih korumpiranih poslova, Arnold je zatražio vojni sud da očisti njegovo ime. Oslobođen je svih, osim dvije manje optužbe, ali to je iz Washingtona ipak izazvalo prilično gadan prijekor. Nedugo zatim računovođe Kongresa izračunale su da im je, nakon zbrajanja troškova za sjeverne kampanje, Arnold ostao dužan 1.000 funti.

I to je manje -više kad ih je Arnold uključio. No činilo se da Benedict nije stekao prijatelje gdje god je otišao: na kraju ga je britanska časnička elita isključila iz važnih odluka, zatim je izgubio hrpu novca u lošim poslovnim poslovima i imao niz alarmantnih naleta, uključujući u dvoboju s članom Parlamenta i spaljenim u liku od mještana u St.

Tražite li ovako nevjerojatan sadržaj? Imaš sreće - Mental Floss History of the United States na police knjiga u vašoj blizini 5. listopada! Ako se predbilježite, dobit ćete tri besplatna izdanja mentalni_zubni konac časopis. Ovdje saznajte sve detalje.


Recenzije od Povratnik

Povratnik odlično radi koristeći objavljene dokumente i rukopise kako bi potkrijepio činjenicu da je Arnold, iako je bio konfliktni lik čija su hrabrost i karizma bili u suprotnosti s njegovom taštinom i samoživom prirodom, osobno vjerovao u ispravnost svojih djela iz 1779. do 1781 ... Proza je uvjerljiva i brzog tempa, a ova nova perspektiva [Revolucionarnog] rata daje čitatelju mnogo hrane za razmišljanje. " - Povjesničar

“Brumwellovi zaključci pomno su potkrijepljeni istraživanjem Povratnik nije umorna akademska vježba. Dobro napisana, lako dostupna i učenjaku i laiku, ova biografija vraća čovječanstvo u život nitkova. ” – Times književni dodatak

"Brumwell je zadivljujući pripovjedač priča;##ovo je sjajna, inteligentna, artikulirana knjiga u kojoj će uživati ​​i obični čitatelji i učenjaci iz Arnolda." – Časopis američke revolucije

“Povjesničar koji je postao novinar, Brumwell je ondje i unaprijed okupio arhive kako bi proizveo najpotpuniji i najuravnoteženiji portret heroja američkog rata za nezavisnost koji je na vrhuncu svog uspjeha i slave prešao u Britaniju, a čije je ime kasnije postalo u Americi epitet najcrnje izdaje i gotovo neobjašnjivog bezakonja «. - The Heythrop Journal

“Povratnik stvara fascinantnu sliku Arnolda … on je očito bio čovjek s mnogo talenata i Brumwell, iako ne opravdava svoju izdaju, čini ga mnogo da ga humanizira. " Analitičar CIA -e John Ehrman, Studije inteligencije

"Turncoat nudi novu i jedinstvenu perspektivu i uvid koji je čini esencijalnom knjigom za sve čitatelje sa strašću za otkrivanjem prave povijesti američke revolucije." - Povijest vojske

“Brumwellova pažljiva studija, model učenosti i ljudskog uvida (nisu kvalitete koje se često nalaze zajedno), daje potpuno uvjerljiv revizionistički pogled na slučaj Arnold. Dok to analizira, istodobno je bilo u igri nekih pola tuceta čimbenika, koji su Arnolda gurnuli prema izdaji. U konačnici, navodi Brumwell, Arnoldovo je ponašanje bilo previše ljudsko. Svojom izvanrednom analizom slučaja Arnold, Brumwell je napisao knjigu u kojoj ozloglašenu američku paranoju o izdaji stavlja u perspektivu. ” Frank McLynn, Literary Review

“Razbijajuća dobra priča … nudi nove dokaze i uvjerljive argumente o stvarnim razlozima iza Arnoldove izdaje američkog pokreta za neovisnost. Ako ste mislili da je sve u novcu, Brumwell će vas natjerati da ponovno razmislite. Njegovo prepričavanje posve slučajnog načina na koji je otkrivena planirana veleizdaja, i onoga što se zatim dogodilo, čita se poput hollywoodskog scenarija s vrhunskim ladicama, pravi je kinematograf koji gricka nokte. Ako ste ljubitelj američke povijesti, ova je knjiga apsolutni "ne propustite" - i ako želite slušanje u vašu američku povijest, moja verzija audioknjige pružit će vam oko 17 sati uronjenja u izvanrednu istinitu priču. ” Andrew Sellon, glumac i pripovjedač audio knjiga#8216Turncoat ’

“Gospodin. Brumwell, vojni povjesničar i biograf Georgea Washingtona, usredotočuje se na zavjeru iz 1780. godine u kojoj je Arnold odigrao ključnu ulogu kako bi West Point dao Britancima i eventualno omogućio hvatanje Georgea Washingtona. Spretno utkajući tu priču u veću vojnu povijest Američke revolucije, gospodin Brumwell živopisno skicira likove i prepričava ključne epizode. Tvrdi da je Arnold sebe smatrao nekim tko radi na popravljanju odnosa između Britanije i Amerike, pozdravljajući uvjete koji su uklonili osnove izvorne svađe. Ukratko, dirnulo ga je nešto racionalnije od pikea i manje sitničavo od ogorčenosti. ” William Anthony Hay, Wall Street Journal

“Ova priča ima sve: postoje špijuni i kontrašpijuni, napetost i bliski pozivi, lijepa žena, zgodan i šarmantan britanski major i Alexander Hamilton. Nevjerojatno je da se Hollywood nije ozbiljno potrudio prilagoditi ga ekranu. ” Prof. Gordon S. Wood, The Weekly Standard

“Lucidno napisan i bogat detaljima, Brumwellova priča objašnjava izdaju Benedikta Arnolda vjerujući mu na riječ-da je revolucionarni izdajnik okrenuo svoj kaput kako bi spasio Ameriku od krvavog građanskog rata i domoljubna stvar zalutala. Brumwellovi zaključci su provokativni koliko je Arnold bio kontroverzan. Zapanjujuće štivo. ” Mark Edward Lender, koautor nagrađivane Fatal Sunday

“Najbalansiranija i najpronicljivija procjena Benedikta Arnolda do sada. Koristeći svježe izvore rukopisa, Brumwell ponovno potvrđuje ključnu važnost ljudskog djelovanja u povijesti. ” Edward G. Lengel, autor Generala Georgea Washingtona i urednik Papers of George Washington

“Gripping … Ova lijepa knjiga smješta Benedikta Arnolda u nekoliko konteksta: pitanja lojalnosti i izdaje kao nelojalnosti kao političkog koncepta i kriminalnih odnosa između časti, ugleda, politike i rata te muke 1780. za sve uključene u Revolucionar Rat. U vrijeme kada optužbe za izdaju i nelojalnost prodiru u našu dnevnu politiku, Povratnik bitno je čitanje. ” R. B. Bernstein, Gradski koledž u New Yorku

“ S milošću i osjećajem napisao vodeći vojni povjesničar, Povratnik ispituje karijeru Benedikta Arnolda kao vojnika s obje strane tijekom Rata za neovisnost. Time je Brumwell napisao pronicljivu studiju o ratu i samom značenju same američke revolucije. ” Francis D. Cogliano, autor Revolutionary America

Povjesničar Brumwell (George Washington: Gentleman Warrior) nudi provokativno objašnjenje za jednu od trajnih misterija Američke revolucije: zašto je Benedikt Arnold, jedan od “najslavnijih i najcjenjenijih podređenih Washingtona”, postao izdajicom 1780. godine? Brumwell odbacuje najčešće teorije: da je Arnold osjećao nepoštovanje od strane Kontinentalnog kongresa, koji ga je proslijedio radi unaprjeđenja unatoč impresivnom dosadašnjem djelovanju kao vojni zapovjednik, ili da mu je pohlepa bila glavni motivator. Umjesto toga, Brumwell pripisuje Arnoldove vlastite izjave za koje je smatrao da su ponude pobunjenicima za okončanje borbi istinite i zadovoljavajuće, te da je njegovo odmicanje imalo za cilj ponovno ujedinjenje razbijenog Britanskog carstva. Potvrđujući svoj slučaj dokazima kao što su zapisi britanskog časnika Johna Simcoea, Brumwell čini vjerojatnim kontradiktornu ideju da Arnoldov stav nije bio sporedan, već zapravo "simptom daleko šireg nezadovoljstva" među kolonijalcima. On također pripovijeda luk Arnoldova života i podsjeća nespecijaliste da je konačna pobjeda Amerikanaca daleko od neizbježne. Čitatelji otvorenog uma cijenit će njegovo suprotno mišljenje da je Arnoldu "zaista bilo dobro u srcu", stanovište za koje Brumwell vjeruje da "zaslužuje pažljivo razmatranje u okviru svakog uravnoteženog preispitivanja najzloglasnijeg američkog izdajnika". Publishers Weekly (recenzija sa zvjezdicom)


Sadržaj

Benedict Arnold rođen je 1741. u dobrostojećoj obitelji u lučkom gradu Norwichu u britanskoj koloniji Connecticut. [1] Bio je zainteresiran za vojna pitanja od malih nogu, kratko je služio (ne videći ništa) u kolonijalnoj miliciji tijekom Francuskog i Indijskog rata 1757. [2] Krenuo je u karijeru poslovnog čovjeka, otvarajući prvo trgovinu u New Havenu, a zatim se bavio prekomorskom trgovinom. Posjedovao je i upravljao brodovima, ploveći prema Zapadnoj Indiji, Quebecu i Europi. [3] Kad je britanski parlament počeo nametati poreze svojim kolonijama, Arnoldovi poslovi počeli su biti pod utjecajem njih i aktivnosti kolonista suprotnih porezima, čemu se on na kraju pridružio. [4] Godine 1767. oženio se Margaret Mansfield, s kojom je imao troje djece, od kojih je jedno umrlo u djetinjstvu. [5] [6]

U ožujku 1775. grupa od 65 stanovnika New Havena osnovala je drugu guvernerovu četu straže Connecticut. Arnold je izabran za njihovog kapetana, a on je organizirao obuku i vježbe u pripremama za rat. [7] Dana 21. travnja 1775. u New Haven su stigle vijesti o uvodnim bitkama revolucije u Lexingtonu i Concordu. Arnoldova četa osnovala se kako bi sljedećeg dana marširala u Boston, ali gradsko vijeće nije im pustilo barut. In a confrontation between Arnold and David Wooster that is reenacted in New Haven every Powder House Day, Arnold successfully argued with the older man that he would take the powder one way or another. The magazine was opened, Arnold's company was armed, and they marched off to Boston. [8]

During the march, Arnold encountered Connecticut legislator and militia Colonel Samuel Holden Parsons. They discussed the shortage of cannons in the revolutionary forces and, knowing of the large number of cannons at Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain, agreed that an expedition should be sent to capture the fort. [9] Parsons continued on to Hartford, where he raised funds to establish a force under the command of Captain Edward Mott. Mott was instructed to link up with Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys at Bennington in the disputed New Hampshire Grants territory (now Vermont). [10] Meanwhile, Arnold and his Connecticut militia continued on to Cambridge, where Arnold convinced the Massachusetts Committee of Safety to fund an expedition to take the fort. On May 3, the committee appointed him a colonel in the Massachusetts militia and dispatched him, and several captains under his command, to raise an army in Massachusetts. [11] As his captains recruited troops Arnold rode west. When he reached Williamstown he learned of the activities of Mott and Allen. Turning north, he reached Castleton on May 9, where Allen's forces were already gathering. Arnold attempted to gain control over the expedition by asserting the legitimacy of his commission, but Allen's Green Mountain Boys, by far the largest part of the force, refused to act under the command of anyone other than Allen. [12] In a compromise negotiated privately between Allen and Arnold, the two appeared to jointly lead the expedition. [a]

On May 10, 1775, Fort Ticonderoga was assaulted in a dawn attack and taken without a battle, the colonial forces having surprised the outnumbered British garrison. [13] They also captured nearby Fort Crown Point and Fort George, which were occupied by even smaller garrisons. [14] Following these captures, Allen's men broke into the liquor stored at the fort, and became somewhat unruly. Arnold, who wanted to inventory the fort's military assets for possible transport to Boston, was incensed, but powerless to stop them. [15] With the arrival of men his captains had recruited, and of a schooner they had captured, Arnold then executed a daring raid on Fort Saint-Jean, not far from Montreal. He took more prisoners, and also captured the largest military vessel on Lake Champlain, giving the Americans complete military control of the lake. [16]

After returning to Ticonderoga, Arnold began to exert more authority over the place as Allen's men drifted away. However, a Connecticut force of 1,000 men under Colonel Benjamin Hinman arrived in June with orders placing him in command with Arnold as his subordinate. This act angered Arnold, who felt his efforts on behalf of the revolution were not being recognized he resigned his commission and headed for his home in Connecticut. [17] Arnold's angry response to the loss of command led some members of Congress to dislike him in spite of his military contributions. [18] Congressional opinion of Arnold was also negatively affected by reports circulated by two men that Arnold came to consider enemies. John Brown and James Easton were two of Allen's lieutenants who had traveled to Massachusetts and Philadelphia to report on the action. While their characterizations of Arnold's behavior were accurate, he apparently came to believe that they had probably slandered him, and later interactions with both men were marked by conflict. [19] In an encounter between Arnold and Easton in June, Easton slighted Arnold's authority, to which Arnold responded by challenging the other man to a duel. Easton demurred, and Arnold, in his account of the affair, "took the Liberty of Breaking his head". [20] After Arnold resigned his Massachusetts commission, the state's Committee of Safety appointed Easton to take over the Massachusetts troops at Ticonderoga. [21]

When he reached Albany, Arnold received a letter informing him that his wife had died. [18] He also met with Major General Philip Schuyler, newly in command of the Continental Army's Northern Department, [22] with whom he established a cordial relationship. Arnold returned to New Haven, where he visited his children (now in the care of his sister Hannah) and took care of business dealings. While in New Haven he suffered his first attacks of gout, which plagued him for the rest of his life. [23]

While at Ticonderoga, both Arnold and Allen lobbied Congress with the idea of taking Quebec from the British, as it was lightly defended. [24] General Schuyler was eventually assigned the task of developing a plan to invade Quebec via Lake Champlain in July. The objective was to deprive the British of an important base from which they could attack upper New York. [25] Schuyler intended to lead this force, but due to illness he turned command over to Brigadier General Richard Montgomery early in the expedition, which left in late August. [26]

Arnold, deprived of the opportunity to lead that expedition, went to Cambridge and proposed to George Washington that a second force, in concert with Schuyler's, attack by traveling through the wilderness of what is now Maine to Quebec City. [27] Washington and Schuyler approved the idea, and Washington gave Arnold a colonel's commission in the Continental Army and leadership of the expedition. [28] Arnold used as a guide for the expedition a map and journal he had acquired that were made by John Montresor, a British engineer who mapped the route in 1761. The journal was vague in some details, and, unknown to Arnold, the map contained deliberate omissions to reduce its value to military opponents. [29] [30]

The force of 1,100 recruits embarked from Newburyport, Massachusetts on September 19, 1775, arriving at Gardinerston, Maine, where Arnold had made prior arrangements with Major Reuben Colburn to construct 200 shallow-draft boats known as bateaux, on September 22. [31] [32] These were to be used to transport the troops up the Kennebec and Dead rivers, then down the Chaudière River to Quebec City. The expedition had numerous difficulties that slowed its progress, including several lengthy and difficult portages, bad weather, inaccurate maps, and troops inexperienced in handling the boats. As a result, the expedition took much longer than expected, 500 men either died or turned back, and the remnants were near starvation when they reached the Saint Lawrence River in November. [33]

The British had been alerted to Arnold's approach and had destroyed all of the boats on the river's southern banks. Although two warships, the frigate Lizard (26 guns) and the sloop-of-war Lovac (16 guns), kept up a constant patrol to prevent a river crossing, Arnold was able to procure sufficient watercraft for his men, and crossed to the Quebec City side on November 11. [34] He then realized his force was not strong enough to capture the city, so he retreated several miles and waited for Montgomery. [35]

In late August, Montgomery sailed north from Fort Ticonderoga with about 1,200 men. [36] After successfully besieging Fort Saint-Jean, he captured Montreal on November 13. The two men joined forces in early December, and with their combined force of about 1,200 soldiers, they attacked Quebec on December 31, 1775. [37] The colonial forces suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of General Guy Carleton, governor of Quebec and commander of the British forces. Montgomery was killed leading an assault along with all but one of his officers his men never got close to the walls. Arnold's force made a descent into the lower town. Early in the battle, Arnold was wounded in the leg, but stayed on the battlefield encouraging his troops on. Daniel Morgan's rifle company, the most successful of the American troops, fought inside the city until Morgan was cornered and forced to surrender. Many others were killed or wounded, and hundreds were taken prisoner. [38]

The remnants of the army, reduced by the battle and by expiring enlistments to some 600 men, now came under Arnold's command. Instead of retreating, Arnold maintained a minimally effective siege around the city. [39] In this time Arnold learned that he had been promoted to brigadier general in January for his success in reaching Quebec City. [40] He also had a run-in with John Brown, who was now a major and had come north with Montgomery. Montgomery had apparently promised Brown a promotion, which he then applied to Arnold to receive. Arnold, apparently still smarting over the perceived slights at Ticonderoga, denied the promotion, which Brown promptly appealed directly to Congress. Arnold's response to this threat to his authority was to accuse Brown, and also Easton, who had been present when Montgomery took Montreal but had returned south, of improperly plundering the bags of British officers. When Brown insisted on a court martial to clear his name, Arnold again refused, attempting to further smear the two men through the use of intermediaries. (Brown never received a formal hearing on Arnold's charges.) [41]

Arnold maintained the siege until the spring of 1776, when reinforcements under Brigadier General David Wooster arrived. Arnold traveled to Montreal to take up military command of that city. [42]

In May 1776, while a delegation of the Continental Congress was visiting Montreal, a large British fleet began arriving in Quebec, precipitating the retreat of the Continental Army from Quebec City. [43] Arnold's administration of Montreal became complicated by a British-Indian force's attack on an American fort at The Cedars, upriver from Montreal, in May that began to unfold while he was attending a war council with the retreating army's command and the Congressional delegation at Sorel. He returned to Montreal to organize a response, and, with the assistance of timely reinforcements, reached an agreement for a prisoner exchange with the British, who were holding the garrison from the fort. [44] In a war council discussing how to respond to the incident, Arnold had a heated exchange with Moses Hazen, the commander of the 2nd Canadian Regiment, that was the beginning of a series of disputes between them that eventually resulted in courts martial of both men. [45]

Arnold then began preparing to evacuate the American garrison from Montreal. Pursuant to instructions from the Congressmen he began seizing supplies from local merchants, issuing receipts for the goods that the merchants could use in compensation claims later. These goods, which were marked to identify the supplying merchant, were shipped to Fort Chambly in early June. [46] Hazen, who owned property in the area and was in command at Chambly, refused to store the goods, believing them to be goods seized improperly from merchants he knew. [47]

Arnold's anger at Hazen's act needed to be held back the British advance up the St. Lawrence almost caught him by surprise. He was alerted that British ships were approaching the city by a messenger he sent toward Sorel for news. [48] Upon departure from the city, he ordered fires to be set in an attempt to burn the city before the British arrived, and then went to Saint-Jean, where he joined the rear of the retreating army. Arnold directed his forces to destroy by burning or sinking any ships the British could use on Lake Champlain, and set fire to the fort and nearby works. [49] Arnold is reported to have waited until the vanguard of the British army came into musket range before shooting his own horse dead and pushing off from Saint-Jean and departing up the Richelieu to Champlain. [50]

Arnold then spent the summer of 1776 coordinating the construction of a flotilla of small warships and gunboats at Skenesborough, to delay the British further by denying them free access to the lake. The British responded by building a much larger lake flotilla at Saint-Jean, which they launched in early October. The British destroyed Arnold's flotilla at the Battle of Valcour Island in mid-October, and advanced as far as Crown Point. However, winter was setting in, so General Carleton called off the advance. [17]

During the fleet's construction, Arnold ordered the arrest and trial of Hazen for dereliction of his duty with respect to the incident at Chambly. [51] Hazen, a politically well-connected figure (his commission to lead the 2nd Canadian came after appearing before Congress following the Battle of Quebec), turned the proceeding on its head, countercharging that Arnold had stolen the goods in question, [52] and that the officer responsible for transporting them, a Major Scott, had damaged them in transit. [53] Major Scott's testimony was questioned and eventually rejected by the court martial, [54] which acquitted Hazen and ordered Arnold's arrest. General Horatio Gates, then in command at Ticonderoga, dissolved the arrest warrant, citing the desperate need for Arnold's services against the expected British attack. [52] Arnold's silence in response to Hazen's accusation probably confirmed and deepened the opinions people already held of him those favorably disposed to him perceived it as a dignified non-response to a ridiculous accusation, while those who disliked him saw it as the reaction of a man whose hand had been caught in the till. Historians continue to debate whether Arnold was actually engaged in anything illegal. [55] In the aftermath of these incidents, Congressman Samuel Chase warned Arnold that "your best friends are not your countrymen". [56]

Much of the army at Ticonderoga was ordered to march south in November, to reinforce Washington's army in the defense of New Jersey. In Albany, Arnold was again made to face formal charges. Brown and Hazen had each drawn up charges relating to earlier actions. Hazen charged defamation of character over the accusations Arnold had earlier levelled against him, and Brown accused him of a variety of minor charges, but also two peculiar ones: first, that Arnold had deliberately spread smallpox throughout the army in Quebec, and second, that Arnold had, during the raid on Saint-Jean, made "a treasonable attempt to make his escape . to the enemy." [57] General Gates refused a hearing of Brown's charges, and a court martial, although it determined that Arnold's accusation against Hazen constituted "an aspersion of Colonel Hazen's character", imposed no punishment. [57] In the winter of 1776–77, Brown published a handbill that claimed of Arnold, "Money is this man's God, and to get enough of it he would sacrifice his country". [58]

Washington assigned Arnold to the army's Eastern Department in December 1776 to assist in the defense of Rhode Island, where the British had occupied Newport. [59] In February 1777, Arnold was passed over for promotion to major general by Congress, prompting him to consider resigning. [60] He was visiting his family in New Haven when word arrived of a British action against an army supply depot in Danbury. Arnold and General Wooster helped to marshal militia response to this action, which culminated in the Battle of Ridgefield, where Wooster was killed and Arnold was again wounded in the leg. Arnold distinguished himself by continuing to regroup the militia companies and harrying the British forces all the way to the coast. He received promotion to major general for this action, [61] although his seniority over the earlier appointments would not be restored until after his valiant leadership in the decisive battles of Saratoga in fall 1777. [62]

While recovering from wounds incurred at Saratoga, Arnold was given military command of Philadelphia following the British withdrawal from that city. [63] There he became embroiled in political and legal disputes that apparently convinced him to change sides in 1779. [64] [65] Negotiating with British Major John André for more than one year, his plot to surrender West Point failed in 1780 with André's capture and eventual hanging. [66] His British military service began with an expedition to raid American supply depots in Virginia in 1781, during which the only major action was the Battle of Blandford. He was then sent on a raid against New London, Connecticut in early September in a fruitless attempt to divert Washington's march to face Cornwallis in Virginia. [67] He sailed for London at the end of 1781, on a ship that also carried Lord Cornwallis, who had been released on parole after his surrender at Yorktown. [68] Despite repeated attempts to gain command positions in the British Army or with the British East India Company, he was given no more military commands. He resumed business activities, engaging in trade while based at first in Saint John, New Brunswick and then London. On June 14, 1801 Benedict Arnold slipped into a coma and died. [69] [70]


Did the Continental Congress Prolong the War

Been doing a lot of research about the Generals during the American Revolutionary War, in particular Benedict Arnold.

After Benedict Arnold was first passed over for a Major General promotion he sent in his resignation to Washington to which Washington would not accept and told Congress that they should stop playing politics as many of their best generals would resign because of it.

Benedict Arnold, Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan were each passed over for men like Charles Lee, Horatio Gates and Benjamin Lincoln.

Arnold, Greene and Morgan all knew how to fight the British by using guerrilla tactics.

Just an observation that I wanted to throw out there. Would the American Revolutionary War have ended quicker and France gotten involved sooner if these three men would have been elevated instead of the others. I don't believe Arnold would have committed Treason if he had been given the rank he deserved. that does not excuse his actions and he should have been hanged.

Buflineks

Been doing a lot of research about the Generals during the American Revolutionary War, in particular Benedict Arnold.

After Benedict Arnold was first passed over for a Major General promotion he sent in his resignation to Washington to which Washington would not accept and told Congress that they should stop playing politics as many of their best generals would resign because of it.

Benedict Arnold, Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan were each passed over for men like Charles Lee, Horatio Gates and Benjamin Lincoln.

Arnold, Greene and Morgan all knew how to fight the British by using guerrilla tactics.

Just an observation that I wanted to throw out there. Would the American Revolutionary War have ended quicker and France gotten involved sooner if these three men would have been elevated instead of the others. I don't believe Arnold would have committed Treason if he had been given the rank he deserved. that does not excuse his actions and he should have been hanged.

Greene was not a Guerilla tactian, he was a "Line General". But he did recognize the benefit of unorthodox tactics and proper use of certian militia. Same goes for Morgan.

France came in after Saratoga, and most historians I think will agree that the success of that campaign wasn't so much due to Gates, as it was to Arnold and some small extent Morgan.

The problem with the Continental Congress was the Articles of Confederation. It showed the deficieny then as well as later and led to the Consitutional Convention.

To be honest, I and others think that C. Lee and Gates for lack of better descriptions were "tools". They wanted overall command and were disgruntled that an "Upstart" Virginian was given command over them.

Yakmatt

Green was a civilian before the war. He won promotion quickly but made major mistakes at Ft Washington. He learned on the job and was considered one of the top US commanders by the end of the war. Arnold was a daring leader but was involved in controversy and on the wrong side of political battles. Morgan was poorly educated and enjoyed drinking and gambling. Morgan had served as a civilian teamster during the French and Indian War. After returning from the advance on Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) by General Braddock's command, he was punished with 499 lashes (a usually fatal sentence) for punching his superior officer. Morgan thus acquired a hatred for the British Army. [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Morgan]Daniel Morgan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]


Both Lee and Gates had command experience in the as Majors British Army. Lee was responsible for stopping the British invasion of Charleston and was with Washington at Boston. He also served in the polish army. Gates was a major during the 7 years war. So both had a pedigree that would earn them top command spots.

Of course both men caused problems for the American side. Gates was incompetent. And Lee worked to undermine Washington, got captured, and disgraced himself at Monmouth.

MattV

This is the key point. When Congress was picking who to promote they went to the men with the most experience. Lee and Gates had the experience, Greene, Arnold, and Morgan did not. Considering how inexperienced the Continental Army was Congress was definitely going to pick men with experience over men with little or no experience. We have the benefit of hindsight so we know that these were poor choices but at the time you can't blame Congress for thinking Lee and Gates were better choices.

You asked if France would have gotten involved sooner if Greene, Arnold and Morgan were promoted over Gates and Lee, and I think the answer is definitely no. France was waiting for a decisive victory to get involved in the war, and if Congress was promoting men with no experience over men with experience that would have caused some raised eyebrows and more hesitation at the least. Remember even though neither was the commanding general at Saratoga both Arnold and Morgan were there and played significant roles in the victory.

Knarly Dan

Betgo

This is the key point. When Congress was picking who to promote they went to the men with the most experience. Lee and Gates had the experience, Greene, Arnold, and Morgan did not. Considering how inexperienced the Continental Army was Congress was definitely going to pick men with experience over men with little or no experience. We have the benefit of hindsight so we know that these were poor choices but at the time you can't blame Congress for thinking Lee and Gates were better choices.

You asked if France would have gotten involved sooner if Greene, Arnold and Morgan were promoted over Gates and Lee, and I think the answer is definitely no. France was waiting for a decisive victory to get involved in the war, and if Congress was promoting men with no experience over men with experience that would have caused some raised eyebrows and more hesitation at the least. Remember even though neither was the commanding general at Saratoga both Arnold and Morgan were there and played significant roles in the victory.

It wasn't like the Civil War with all the West Point graduates. That is why they brought in so many European officers. Washington had been a militia officer and aide de camp in the French and Indian War, but was not a professional soldier.

Greene was of middle class background and not much military experience. Morgan was from a poor background. Arnold was a businessman before the war and a militia officer.

Mangekyou

Greene was not a good field commander. In the southern theatre he lost every battle. What he do was keep his continental army in existence and in companionship with units of the guerillas. This enabled him to adopt a flexible strategy, which eventually cornered the British in Yorktown. This was also a case early in the war. Howe failed to destroy the field army of Washington, despite having numerous chances to do so. As a result, it was able to drill itself and survive Valley Forge, and pick decisive moments to strike at Trenton and Princeton.

Both Morgan and Arnold were valuable assets. Morgan was a pugnacious leader, and his sharpshooters proved their worth during the battles at Saratoga and later on at Cowpens, where he developed a flexible "spring" like formation to defeat Tarleton who was rather impulsive in his direct charge as was his style Speed and penetration.

Arnold also proved himself at Saratoga, and in Canada. both times his influence was decisive. In Canade he built a matchbox fleet that even though destroyed at Valcour island, was able to delay the southern thrust of Carleton by a year and forced him into winter quarters. He coul'dve destroyed the navy a year earlier than Valcour, but as stated above, Arnolds quick and decisive thinking made him take to winter quarters. He was also the single most decisive figure at Saratoga, where without his defiance at Gates, the Americans surely would have been broken by the tenacity of the British troops.


Both of these two men exhiibted excellent thinking and leadership abilities, probably the best two American generals of the war, yet the had something in common they were both unorthodox and not afraid to disobey command. As such they were bypassed for commands at times, and Arnold later defected.

The History Junkie

Greene was not a good field commander. In the southern theatre he lost every battle. What he do was keep his continental army in existence and in companionship with units of the guerillas. This enabled him to adopt a flexible strategy, which eventually cornered the British in Yorktown. This was also a case early in the war. Howe failed to destroy the field army of Washington, despite having numerous chances to do so. As a result, it was able to drill itself and survive Valley Forge, and pick decisive moments to strike at Trenton and Princeton.

Both Morgan and Arnold were valuable assets. Morgan was a pugnacious leader, and his sharpshooters proved their worth during the battles at Saratoga and later on at Cowpens, where he developed a flexible "spring" like formation to defeat Tarleton who was rather impulsive in his direct charge as was his style Speed and penetration.

Arnold also proved himself at Saratoga, and in Canada. both times his influence was decisive. In Canade he built a matchbox fleet that even though destroyed at Valcour island, was able to delay the southern thrust of Carleton by a year and forced him into winter quarters. He coul'dve destroyed the navy a year earlier than Valcour, but as stated above, Arnolds quick and decisive thinking made him take to winter quarters. He was also the single most decisive figure at Saratoga, where without his defiance at Gates, the Americans surely would have been broken by the tenacity of the British troops.


Both of these two men exhiibted excellent thinking and leadership abilities, probably the best two American generals of the war, yet the had something in common they were both unorthodox and not afraid to disobey command. As such they were bypassed for commands at times, and Arnold later defected.

While I agree about Arnold and Morgan, I have to disagree with Greene. He did something very similar to Morgan at Guilford Courthouse and although he did not technically win it stopped Cornwallis and made him retreat back to Yorktown. It is hard to look over the words of Washington when he said that if he were to die in battle that he wanted Nathanael Greene to take over his command. While I don't believe that Greene was a better field commander than Morgan or Arnold he was certainly better than Gates, Lee and Lincoln. Also Greene was better at logistics than any General in the war which is often overlooked.

When Congress was looking for another commander in the South they chose Gates, although Washington wanted Greene. Throughout history I never understand when bureaucrats decide military decisions like that rather than listen to their commanders in the field, especially the commander-in-chief. If Greene and Morgan would have been put in that position instead of Gates I believe that Camden would have never happened.

Arnold was such a fighter and great battle commander that I don't know what he would have done after Saratoga. The same goes for Morgan. By the time Cowpens happened Morgan's sciatica was so bad he had to resign after.

Gates = incompetent and saved by Arnold and Morgan at Saratoga.
Lincoln = Incompetent
Lee = Average, but was a traiter before Arnold ever was.


Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor

Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor is a 2003 American television film directed by Mikael Salomon and starring Aidan Quinn, Kelsey Grammer, Flora Montgomery and John Light. It portrays the career of Benedict Arnold in the American Revolutionary War and his dramatic switch in 1780 from fighting for American Independence to being a Loyalist trying to preserve British rule in America. Arnold's relationships with his wife Peggy Shippen and the British officer John André are focused on. The friction between Arnold and General Horatio Gates, portrayed near the beginning of the film (for example, in one scene when Arnold derisively refers to him as "Granny Gates"), was historically accurate. The movie points out that, before his treason, Arnold was considered a patriot and a hero. A letter from General Washington is read at the beginning where he enthusiastically recommends Arnold for promotion saying that there is no general in the army more deserving and even comparing him to Hannibal. The movie briefly documents Arnold's final years of exile in England in which he laments his treasonous acts, realizing that he is despised and that people compare him with Judas and Lucifer.

The movie opens with these words:

The American Revolution bitterly divided the people:
A third calling themselves Patriots fought for a free and independent nation.
A third called themselves Loyalists remaining loyal to Great Britain.
A third remained neutral.
Against the world's greatest power, the patriots suffered many defeats.
Thousands gave their lives for an ideal:
The United States of America.

In a letter to the Continental Congress, George Washington recommends Brigadier General Benedict Arnold for promotion to Major General for the numerous acts of heroism he made as an ardent Patriot. Washington first cites Arnold's invasion of Canada through the Maine wilderness, a feat he compares to Hannibal's march over the Alps. Washington notes that if Arnold hadn't been wounded during the Battle of Quebec, Canada would now be the 14th State. He then notes Arnold's victory in the Battle of Valcour Island in which that although Arnold lost all his ships, he succeeded in stopping an invasion from the north by the British. He also reveals that he is now helping General Horatio Gates stave off another invasion from the north.

At Saratoga, Gates has called Arnold off the battlefield. Gates tells him that he has ordered a retreat. Arnold reminds him that they have a joint command of the Northern Army and that he therefore cannot order a retreat without consulting with him first. Gates reveals that thanks to his political connections Congress has elevated him to First in Command of the Northern Army and restates his order. Arnold refuses to comply and instead leads the Northern Army to victory, at the cost of being shot in his leg. Arnold's victory forces British General Burgoyne to surrender to Gates. Gates claims all the credit for the victory while Arnold undergoes treatment for his leg after he refuses to have it amputated. Gates goes on to command the Continental Army's Southern Army while Arnold goes home after the treatment is over.

Months later, Arnold is invited by Washington to join him at Valley Forge were his is made a ranking Major General. Meanwhile, in Philadelphia, the British are about to evacuate the city for New York City. Captain John André promises his girlfriend Peggy Shippen he will return for her. Sometime later, Arnold arrives in the city due to being appointed by Washington as Military Governor with his aide de camp Major David Franks. Joseph Reed, Pennsylvania's Governor, tries to intimidate him but Arnold faces the Pennsylvania Militia down in a way that makes them stand down. Peggy, who was watching, is impressed. Later, Arnold makes a deal with a merchant to supply army wagons that will bring his goods to Philadelphia in return for fifty percent of the profits. He then hosts a party to celebrate the second Independence Day. At the party, he meets Peggy and falls in love with her. Reed, who is attending, again tries to intimidate Arnold but again Arnold makes him back down.

Arnold courts Peggy and eventually proposes marriage to her. Peggy's father Judge Shippen objects to the marriage because of Arnold's self-righteous Puritanism, his lowly circumstances, his reputation as a "thin-skinned hothead", Reed's attacks on his character in newspapers, and his being a cripple because of his injury at Saratoga. Arnold’s honor would not let him marry Peggy unless he agrees to a court-martial in order to clear his name. Arnold goes to Washington to request a court-martial. He then goes back and marries Peggy. That night, Mount Pleasant, Arnold's Pennsylvanian home, is besieged by an angry mob over his marriage. Arnold sends Franks to Washington to send Continental soldiers to protect his house, his sister Hannah Arnold, his sons Benedict Arnold VI, Richard Arnold and Henry Arnold, and Peggy. However, when Franks returns he informs Arnold that Washington will send no troops and instead presents Arnold with a bill from the Continental Congress for the use of the army wagons. Peggy convinces her husband that Congress and Washington do not value him and do not appreciate his sacrifices and to defect to the British army. Peggy sends a letter to André, who has long since become a Major and the Adjunct General in the British Army. Major André informs Sir Henry Clinton, the Commander in Chief of the British Army, that Arnold wants to defect and offer his services to the Crown. Sir Henry tells Andre to send a letter back to demand that the "American Achilles" deliver up West Point to them to test Arnold. Arnold sends back terms to them. He then attends his court marshal. Meanwhile, it's revealed that the reason Washington did not send troops is because the Continental Army is in a state of mutiny. Arnold is reprimanded by Washington for being a war profiteer on Congress's orders. It quickly becomes clear to Arnold that he is now held in contempt when a soldier who once praised him mouths off to him. Washington offers Arnold command of the Left Wing of the Main Continental Army so he can return to active service and regain the esteem of the Continentals. This makes Arnold have second thought about his decision to defect as this will make him second in command of the entire Continental Army. Peggy tells him it is too late as Sir Henry has already agreed to the deal he offered. Arnold goes back to Washington to beg him for command of West Point. Washington grants him his request.

Six months later, Arnold and Peggy are living right beside West Point with their infant son Edward Arnold. Arnold meets with Joshua Smith who informs him that André will meet with him aboard the HMS Vulture. However the ship opens fire on him. Peggy informs him that it was a gunboat that opened fire on him not the Vulture. Arnold informs her Washington and his General Staff are coming. Peggy tells Benedict that if he delivers them up to the British as well he will no doubt be made a Lord and Viceroy of British America. Arnold sends a message to André offering this and demanding that André meet him on land. Sir Henry agrees to this and tells André he will be given a knighthood when he returns. Franks confronts Arnold about his business with Smith and Arnold tells him Smith is part of a plan to end the war.

André arrives and they work out the plan to take West Point and the Continental General Staff. However, cannons open fire on the Vulture and André is forced to return on land. However, he's caught by skinners and turned over to Colonel John Jameson. Jameson sends news of "Anderson's" capture to Arnold and the plans to West Point to Washington. Upon getting the message, Arnold thanks Franks for his devotion and flees to the Vulture which he escapes on. Washington arrives to find the Fort and men unarmed and the sentries missing and demands to know what's going on. The messenger with the plans for West Point arrives and delivers them and a letter to His Excellency General Washington. Washington tells everyone "Arnold has betrayed us! Apparently, he was about to deliver up West Point to the enemy with all of us! If our greatest warrior is a traitor can anyone be trusted?!" Franks, Smith, and Joseph Calhoon are arrested. The men at West are called back to the Fort where they are told to put down the picks and shovels Arnold ordered them to carry around and pick up their muskets. The cannons are soon put back in place. West Point is soon prepared for a British attack. Arnold now a British Brigadier General offers himself up for André. Sir Henry refuses on the ground a deserter is never given up. Arnold replies he does not consider himself a deserter to which Sir Henry tells him "What you think you are and what the world assigns will always be at odds." André is hung.

Eighteen years later, Arnold and Peggy are living in the United Kingdom. Arnold is forced to realize that he is hated as a man whose name will be ranked in granite amongst the betrayers. The epilogue announces that Arnold died three years later and that his only monument at Saratoga does not bear his name but merely reads "In memory of the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army who was desperately wounded in this spot winning the most decisive battle of the Revolution and for himself the rank of Major General."


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