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TREĆI DAN U GETTYSBURGU - Povijest

TREĆI DAN U GETTYSBURGU - Povijest


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Henry Hunt general bojnik SAD

U POGLEDU uspjeha postignutih drugog dana, general Lee je riješio

da obnovi svoje napore. Ti su uspjesi bili:

1. S desne strane, smještaj u podnožju okruglih vrhova, posjed Đavolje jazbine i njegove šume te grebeni na cesti Emmitsburg, što mu je dalo željene položaje za njegovo topništvo.

2. S lijeve strane zauzeće dijela ukopa u Dvanaestom korpusu, s izlazom na Baltimore štuku, kojim su se sve naše linije mogle preokrenuti.

3.. U središtu je bio djelomični uspjeh triju Andersonovih brigada u prodiranju u naše redove, iz kojih su protjerani samo zato što im je nedostajala odgovarajuća podrška. Smatralo se da bi bolji koncert mogao biti dobar smještaj i ovdje.

Obje su vojske doista teško izgubile, ali se činilo da je računica u tom pogledu u prilog Konfederacijama ili, u najgorem slučaju, uravnotežena. Divizije Picketta i Edwarda Johnsona bile su svježe, kao i Poseyjeva i Mahoneova brigada R. H. Andersona i brigada Williama Smitha Earlyjeve divizije.

Na njih se moglo osloniti za napad; ostali bi se mogli koristiti kao potpora i za praćenje uspjeha. Topništvo je bilo gotovo netaknuto. Stuart je stigao sa svojom konjicom, osim brigada Jonesa i Robertsona, čuvajući komunikacije; a pojavio se i Imboden. General Lee je stoga usmjerio obnovu operacija i s desne i s lijeve strane. Ewellu je naređeno da napadne na dan bijela svjetla 3. srpnja, a tijekom noći pojačao je Johnsona Smithovom, Danielovom i O'Nealovom brigadom. Johnson se pripremio i kretao se, kad se u zoru otvorilo Williamsovo topništvo, pripremajući napad Gearyja i Rugera za oporavak njihovih djela. Nakon obustave ove vatre uslijedilo je neposredno napredovanje obje strane. Uslijedio je sukob koji je s različitim uspjehom trajao gotovo do 11 sati, tijekom kojeg su Geary i Ruger, uz pomoć Shalerove brigade Šestog korpusa, istjerali Konfederate iz zatvora Unije. Napravili su jedan ili dva pokušaja da povrate posjed, ali su bili neuspješni, a demonstracije za skretanje Johnsonove lijeve strane natjerale su ga da povuče svoju zapovijed u Rock Creek. Krajem rata mjesto sukoba prekrila je šuma mrtvog drveća, olovni metci pokazali su se za njih kobnim kao i za vojnike čija su tijela bila gusto razbacana ispod njih.

Longstreet je dogovorio napad na Round Top, a njegova naređenja izdana su s ciljem da se to preokrene, kada je general Lee odlučio da napad na Cemetery Ridge izvrši Pickettova i Pettigrewova divizija, s dijelom Trimbleove. Longstreet ih je oblikovao u dvije crte-Pickett s desne strane, podržan od Wilcoxa; Pettigrew s lijeve strane, s Laneovom i Scalesovom brigadom pod Trimbleom u drugom redu. Hillu je naređeno da zadrži svoju liniju s ostatkom svog korpusa, šest brigada-po potrebi pruži pomoć Longstreet-u i iskoristi svaki uspjeh koji bi mogao postići. Konačno je snažnoj topničkoj snazi, oko sto pedeset topova, naređeno da kanonadom pripremi put za napad. Potrebni aranžmani izazvali su kašnjenje, a prije nego što je Ewell mogao primiti obavijest o tome, Johnson je, kao što smo vidjeli, napadnut, tako da je natjecanje završilo s lijeve strane prije nego što je u centru počelo. Očekivani koncert u napadima Konfederacije izgubljen je od početka.

Na saveznoj strani Hancockov korpus držao je Cemetery Ridge s Robinsonovom divizijom, First Corps, s desne strane Haysa u potpori, i Doubleday's pod kutom između Gibbona i Caldwella. General Newton, koji je bio raspoređen u zapovjedništvo Prvog korpusa, vice Reynolds, sada je bio zadužen za greben koji je držao Caldwell. Na njegovu grbu bilo je kompaktno raspoređeno topništvo MeGilveryja, četrdeset i jedno oružje, koje se sastojalo od njegovih vlastitih baterija, pojačanih drugim iz Artiljerijskog rezervata. Pa desno, ispred Haysa i Gibbona, bilo je topništvo Drugog korpusa pod njegovim načelnikom, kapetanom Hazardom. Woodruffova baterija bila je ispred Zieglerovog gaja; s njegove lijeve strane, u nizu, Arnold's Rhode Island, Cushing's United States, Brown's Rhode Island i Rorty's New York. U borbi prethodnog dana dvije posljednje imenovane baterije bile su na frontu i teško su stradale. Poručnik T. Fred Brown bio je teško ranjen, a njegova je zapovijed prešla na poručnika Perrina. Gubitak ljudi i konja bio je toliko velik da su sada imali po četiri topa, pa je ukupan broj u korpusu smanjen na dvadeset šest. Danielova baterija konjskog topništva, četiri topa, bila je pod uglom. Cowanova prva njujorška baterija, šest pušaka, postavljena je s lijeve strane Rortyjeve ubrzo nakon početka kanonade. Osim toga, neki topovi na Cemetery Hillu i Rittenhouseovi na Little Round Top -u mogli su se donijeti, ali oni su nadoknađeni baterijama koje su bile postavljene na bokovima neprijatelja, tako da se na liniji Drugog korpusa, unutar prostora milje, bilo je 77 topova za suprotstavljanje gotovo 150. Nalazili su se na otvorenom grebenu jasno vidljivi sa svih dijelova suprotne crte. Između 10 i 11 sati, sve što je izgledalo povoljno na CuIp's Hillu, prešao sam na Cemetery Ridge, da vidim što se može dogoditi na drugim mjestima. Ovdje mi je pogled dočekao veličanstven prikaz. Cijeli naš prednji dio od dvije milje bio je prekriven baterijama koje su već bile u redu ili su krenule na svoje mjesto. Protezali su se-očito u jednoj neprekinutoj masi-od nasuprot grada do Voćnjaka breskvi, koji je ograničavao pogled s lijeve strane čiji su grebeni bili zasipani topovima. Nikada do sada takvom prizoru nije bilo svjedoka na ovom kontinentu, a rijetko, ako ikad, u inozemstvu. Što je to značilo? Možda bi bilo moguće zadržati tu liniju dok je njezino pješaštvo poslano u pomoć Ewellu ili se čuvati od protuudra s naše strane, ali najvjerojatnije je to značilo napad na naše središte, kojem će prethoditi kanonada kako bi nam slomio baterije i protresite naše pješaštvo; barem da nas natjera da u odgovoru iscrpimo svoje streljivo, tako da bi napadačke trupe mogle proći u dobrom stanju preko pola milina otvorenog tla što je bilo izvan naše učinkovite vatre iz mušketije. S takvim objektom kanonada bi bila duga i odmah bi uslijedio napad, a cijela njihova vojska bila je spremna pratiti uspjeh. Iz velike količine zemlje koju su zauzele neprijateljske baterije bilo je očito da se cijelo topništvo na našem zapadnom frontu, bilo da je riječ o armijskom korpusu ili pričuvnom sastavu, mora podudarati kao jedinica, pod načelnikom topništva, u obrani. To je u svim dobro organiziranim vojskama predviđeno posebnim pravilima, koja su prije bila sadržana u propisima naše vojske, ali su u slijedećim izdanjima bila sažeta u nekoliko kratkih redaka, toliko nejasnih da su gotovo bezvrijedni, jer, poput rudimentarni prst pseće šape, zbog nedostatka uporabe, postali su puka preživljavanja-nerazumljiva osim za stručnjaka. Bilo je od prve važnosti podvrgnuti neprijateljsko pješaštvo, od prvog trenutka njihovog napredovanja, takvoj unakrsnoj vatri našeg topništva koja bi slomila njihovu formaciju, provjerila njihov impuls i otjerala ih natrag ili ih u Icastu dovela do naše linije u takvom stanju da ih čine lakim plijenom. Nije bilo ni vremena ni potrebe za to prijaviti generalu Meadeu, a počevši s desne strane, naložio sam načelnicima topništva i zapovjednicima baterija da obuzdaju vatru petnaest ili dvadeset minuta nakon početka kanonade, a zatim da koncentriraju vatru sa svim mogućim mogućnostima preciznost na onim baterijama koje su za nas bile najrazornije-ali polako, tako da kad je neprijateljsko streljivo bilo iscrpljeno, trebalo nam je ostaviti dovoljno za susret s napadom. Upravo sam dao ovo naređenje posljednjoj bateriji na Malom okruglom vrhu, kada je ispaljen signalni pištolj, a neprijatelj se otvorio sa svim svojim oružjem. Od tog trenutka prizor je bio neopisivo veličanstven. Sve njihove baterije uskoro su bile prekrivene dimom, kroz koji su bljeskovi bili neprestani, dok se zrak činio ispunjenim granatama, čije su oštre eksplozije, uz udaranje njihovih fragmenata, činile pratnju uz duboki huk topova. Odatle sam odjahao u topnički rezervat kako bih naredio da se svježe baterije i streljivo pošalju na greben čim je kanonada prestala; ali i rezerva i vlak otišli su na sigurnije mjesto. Glasnici su, međutim, bili ostavljeni da primaju i prenose naredbe, koje sam ja slao; zatim sam se vratio na greben. Pretvarajući se u štuku iz Taneytowna, vidio sam dokaze o nužnosti pod kojom se rezervat "srušio", u ostacima desetaka eksplodiranih kesona, koji su bili stavljeni pod zaklon brda, ali koje su granate uspjele pronaći. Zapravo, požar je bio opasniji iza grebena nego na njegovu grebenu, koji je ubrzo stigao do položaja koji je zauzeo general Newton iza McGilveryjevih baterija, s kojih smo imali lijep pogled jer su sva naša vlastita oružja sada bila u akciji.

Većina neprijateljskih projektila prošla je iznad glave, a učinak je bio pomesti sve otvoreno tlo u našoj pozadini, što je Konfederacijama bilo od male koristi-puko bacanje streljiva, jer je sve ovdje moglo potražiti zaklon. I ovdje se može ponoviti već objavljeni incident koji ilustrira posebnost građanskog rata. Pukovnik Long, koji je u to vrijeme bio u stožeru generala Leeja, nekoliko je godina prije toga služio u mojoj montiranoj bateriji izričito kako bi dobio tečaj poduke o uporabi terenskog topništva. U Appomattoxu smo proveli nekoliko sati zajedno, a tijekom razgovora rekao sam mu da nisam zadovoljan ponašanjem ove kanonade za koju sam čuo da je pod njegovim vodstvom, u koliko nije postupio po njegovim uputama; da je njegova vatra, umjesto da se koncentrira na točku napada, kako je trebalo biti, a kako sam očekivao, bit će razasuta po cijelom polju. Bio je zabavljen kritikama i rekao je: "Sjetio sam se mojih lekcija u to vrijeme, a kad se vatra toliko raspršila, pitao sam se što mislite o tome!" ...

Pristup Konfederacije bio je veličanstven i pobudio je naše divljenje; ali priča o toj optužbi toliko je poznata da se ne moram na njoj zadržavati dalje nego što se tiče moje vlastite zapovijedi. Ravnomjerna vatra iz McGilveryja i Rittenhousea s njihove desne strane uzrokovala je da se Pickettovi ljudi "odlutaju" u suprotnom smjeru, tako da je težina napada pala na položaje koje su zauzele baterije Hazarda. Računao sam na topničku unakrsnu vatru koja će je zaustaviti prije nego što stigne do naših redova, ali, osim nekoliko hitaca tu i tamo, Hazardove su baterije šutjele sve dok neprijatelj nije došao u domet kanistera. Nažalost, iscrpili su svoje projektile velikog dometa tijekom kanonade, po zapovijedi zapovjednika svog korpusa, i bilo je prekasno za njihovu zamjenu. Da je ovdje slijedio moje upute, kao što ih je slijedio McGilvery, ne vjerujem da bi Pickettova divizija došla do naše linije. Izgubili smo ne samo vatru jedne trećine naših topova, već i nastalu unakrsnu vatru, koja bi mu udvostručila vrijednost. Glavna greška bila je u zamračenosti naših armijskih propisa u pogledu topništva i nepostojanju svih propisa u vezi s odgovarajućim odnosima različitih oružanih jedinica. Ovom prilikom koštalo nas je mnogo krvi, mnogo života i na trenutak ugrozilo integritet naše linije ako ne i uspjeh bitke. Ubrzo nakon Pickettova odbijanja, Wilcoxova, Wrightova i Perryjeva brigada pomaknute su naprijed, ali pod vatrom svježih baterija na Gibbonovom prednjem dijelu, McGilveryjevih i Rittenhouseovih topova i napredovanja dviju pukovnija Stannardove Vermontske brigade ubrzo su nazadovale. Gubici u baterijama Drugog korpusa bili su vrlo veliki. Od pet zapovjednika baterija i njihovih nasljednika na terenu, ubijeni su Rorty, Cushing i Woodruff, a Milne je smrtno, a Sheldon teško ranjen iz vatrenog oružja. Uništenje ljudi i konja bilo je toliko veliko da su Cushingove i Woodruffove Sjedinjene Američke Države, te Brown i Arnold's Rhode Island baterije bile konsolidirane u dvije ispravne.

Napredovanje brigada Konfederacije kako bi prikrile Pickettovo povlačenje pokazalo je da je neprijateljska linija s druge strane Cemetery Ridgea bila zauzeta pješaštvom. Naša linija na grebenu bila je u manje-više neredu, kao rezultat sukoba, i ni u kakvom stanju nije mogla unaprijediti dovoljnu snagu za protunapad. Najveća raspoloživa tijela organiziranih trupa bila su s lijeve strane, a general Meade je sada krenuo prema Round Top -u i istisnuo okršaje kako bi osjetio neprijatelja ispred sebe. Napredovanje na liniju Plum Run, postrojbi iza nje, dovelo bi ih izravno ispred brojnih baterija koje su okrunile greben Emmitsburg, zapovijedajući tom linijom i svim uzastopnim tlom; dalji napredak, u napad, doveo bi ih pod dodatne jake bočne vatre. McCandlessova brigada, uz potporu Nevina, bila je potisnuta naprijed, pod okriljem šume, koja ih je štitila od požara svih ovih baterija; prešao je pšenično polje, očistio šumu i imao susret s dijelom Benningove brigade koja se povlačila. Hoodove i McLawsove divizije nazadovale su pod Longstreetovim naredbama na svoju jaku poziciju, počivale su na Peach Orchard -u i pokrivale Hillovu liniju. Naše trupe s lijeve strane bile su zaključane. Što se tiče središta, Pickettove i Pettigrewove napadačke divizije nisu činile dio linije A. P. Hill, koja je bila gotovo netaknuta. Ideja da je u tom redu morao postojati "razmak od najmanje jedne milje" napravljen izbacivanjem ovih podjela naprijed i da bi nam brzo napredovanje s Cemetery Ridgea dalo liniju ili topništvo ispred nje, bila zabluda. Brza protutužba nakon borbe između dva mala tijela ljudi je jedno; promjena iz obrambene u ofenzivu vojske, nakon angažmana u jednom trenutku, sasvim je druga. Ovo nije bio "poraz u Waterloou" sa svježom vojskom koja ga je nastavila pratiti, a da je napravio takvu promjenu u ofenzivi, pod pretpostavkom da Lee nije donio nikakvu odredbu protiv preokreta, bilo bi krajnje ishitreno. Napredovanje od 20.000 ljudi s Cemetery Ridgea pred 140 topova koji su tada bili na položaju bilo bi veliko ludilo; Neposredno napredovanje s bilo koje točke na snazi ​​bilo je jednostavno neizvedivo i prije nego što bi se mogla izvršiti odgovarajuća priprema za promjenu ofenzive, povoljan trenutak da je rezultat odbijanja-bio bi prošao.

Dok je glavna bitka bjesnila, na obje strane vojske vodile su se oštre konjičke borbe. S lijeve strane glavni incident bio je napad izvršen po naredbi generala Kilpatricka na pješaštvo i topništvo u šumi i iza kamenih ograda, što je rezultiralo značajnim gubicima, a posebno smrću generala Farnswortha, galantnog i obećavajućeg časnika koji je imao samo nekoliko dana prije imenovan je za brigadnog generala i još nije primio njegovo povjerenstvo. Desno se dogodila afera neke veličine između Stuartove zapovijedi od četiri i Greggove tri brigade; ali Jenkinsova brigada Konfederacije ubrzo je izbačena iz djelovanja zbog nedostatka streljiva, a angažirana su samo dva Greggova. Stuart je dobio naredbu da pokrije Ewellovu lijevu stranu i krenuo je prema Baltimore štuci, gdje se nadao da će stvoriti diverziju u pomoć pješaštvu Konfederacije, a u slučaju Pickettova uspjeha pasti na savezne trupe koje su se povlačile. Iz blizine Cress's Ridgea, dva i pol milje istočno od Gettysburga, Stuart je imao pogled na ceste iza saveznih linija. Na njezinom sjevernom šumovitom kraju postavio je Jacksonovu bateriju i zauzeo poljoprivredne zgrade Rummel, udaljene nekoliko stotina metara. Hampton i Fitzhugh Lee bili su s njegove lijeve strane, prekriveni šumom, Jenkins i Chambliss s desne strane, uz greben. Pola milje istočno na niskom paralelnom grebenu, čiji je južni dio savijajući se prema zapadu prema Cress's Ridgeu pružao izvrsne položaje za topništvo, bila je savezna konjička brigada McIntosh, koja je sada poslala snage prema Rummelu, odakle je došlo do snažnog okršaja bačena im u susret, a baterija se otvorila. McIntosh je sada zahtijevao pojačanje, a Gregg, tada u blizini Baltimore štuke, doveo mu je Custerovu brigadu i Penningtonove i Randolove baterije. Topništvo je ubrzo istjeralo Konfederate iz Rummelove, i prisililo Jacksonovu bateriju Virginije da napusti greben. Obje strane donijele su reentorcements i bitka se ljuljala s jedne na drugu stranu intervala. Konačno su saveznici pritisnuti, a Lee i Hampton, izlazeći iz šume, nabijeni, s mačem u ruci, suočeni s razornom topničkom vatrom-jer je padanje konjice otkrilo naše baterije. Napadače su dočekale Custerove i druge montirane eskadrile koje su mogle biti ubačene; uslijedio je okršaj u kojem je Hampton teško ranjen, a optužba odbijena. Breathed's i McGregor -ove baterije Konfederacije zamijenile su Jacksonove, dogodio se oštar topnički dvoboj, a s padom noći svaka je strana držala u osnovi svoje izvorno tlo. Obje strane tvrde da su držale kuću Rummel. Prednost su očito imali saveznici, koji su osujetili Stuartove planove. Tako se bitka kod Gettysburga zatvorila onako kako je i započela, vrlo vjerodostojnom konjičkom bitkom.

General Lee sada je odustao od pokušaja istjerivanja Meadea, ucvrstio je liniju od Oak Hill do Peach Orchard, unaprijed je započeo sve svoje prepreke do Potomaca, a zatim je sa svojom arrijom krenuo u noći 4. srpnja preko Fairfielda. .

No nade i očekivanja uzbuđena pobjedom Gettysburga bila su jednako nerazumna kao i strahovi koji su joj prethodili; a veliko je bilo razočaranje koje je uslijedilo nakon "bijega" Leejeve vojske. I to se odmah pokazalo, i to na način koji ukazuje na to kako se strogo i nepravedno sudilo i postupalo s Vojskom Potomac i njezinim zapovjednicima; i koja su iskušenja morali proći dok su bili podvrgnuti miješanju i hektorisanju udaljenog nadređenog, iz kojih nisu oslobođeni sve dok ih glavni general nije ispratio na teren. Dan nakon Leejeva povlačenja, prije nego što je bilo moguće saznati sve okolnosti, tri su depeše prošle između dotičnog sjedišta.

Prvi. Halleck to Meade 14. srpnja (djelomično):

Ne trebam vam reći da je bijeg Leejeve vojske bez još jedne bitke stvorio veliko nezadovoljstvo u svijesti predsjednika, pa će s vaše strane biti potrebno aktivno i energično nastojanje kako biste uklonili dojam da do sada nije bila dovoljno aktivna .

Drugi. Meade do Hallecka 14. srpnja:

Pošto sam savjesno i koliko je u mojoj moći izvršio svoju dužnost, osuda predsjednika koju ste prenijeli u vašu depešu od 13:00 današnjeg dana, po mom je sudu tako nezasluženo! osjećaju se s najvećim poštovanjem prisiljeni zatražiti da budu smjenjeni iz zapovjedništva ove vojske.

Treći. Halleck to Meade 14. srpnja:

Moj brzojav u kojem se navodi razočaranje predsjednika zbog bijega Leejeve vojske nije bio zamišljen kao osuda, već kao poticaj za aktivnu potragu. Ne smatra se dovoljnim razlogom za oslobađanje od vaše prijave.

Bez obzira na cilj ovih depeša generala Hallecka, oni su savršeno u skladu s odlučnošću Ratnog ministarstva da pod svim okolnostima diskreditira Vojsku Potomaca i bilo kojeg zapovjednika s kojim se identificira-a to je bio učinak u ovom slučaju.

General Longstreet uvijek je mislio da je Gettvsburg izgubljen jer je Lee, unatoč njihovu dogovoru na početku kampanje, nosio borbu neprijatelju umjesto da ga natjera da ga odnese neprijatelju. A u Gettysburgu, jemstvo, čini se da je više bio vojni realist nego njegov zapovjednik. Bio je, na primjer. mrtav protiv Pickettove optužbe i, kako general Alexander otkriva u sljedećem izvješću, odgađao je što je duže moguće naredbu Pickettu da to započne. Dok se ta sada poznata optužba širila prema linijama Unije, pukovnik Freemantle, britanski promatrač koji ju je promatrao s Longstreetom, rekao je: "Ne bih ništa propustio da je to za bilo što." A Longstreet je odgovorio: "Dovraga, ne biste ! Volio bih da mi je jako nedostajalo. " Čini se da je zaključak sada neizbježan da se general Lee nije dobro borio s Gettysburgom, ali da je s njegova gledišta sve što je moglo poći po zlu u ta tri dana krenulo po zlu.


Bitka za Gettysburg završava: Na današnji dan, 3. srpnja

Bitka kod Gettysburga, koja se vodila u Gettysburgu u Pennsylvaniji, od 1. do 3. srpnja 1863., završila je pobjedom za sindikalnog generala Georgea Meadea i vojsku Potomaca.

Trodnevna bitka bila je najkrvavija u ratu, s približno 51.000 žrtava. Čak i uz tako velike gubitke, to se pokazalo kao značajna pobjeda Unije. Vojska Konfederacije Sjeverne Virginije, pod generalom Robertom E. Leejem, napala je teritorij Unije i kretala se kroz južnu Pennsylvaniju s pogledom na Harrisburg, glavni grad države. General Lee nadao se da će porazom vojske Unije u velikoj bitci na sjevernom teritoriju zadati veliki, možda konačni udarac umornim Sjedinjenim Državama. No, pobjeda Unije učinkovito je okončala invaziju Konfederacije na sjever i osigurala prijeko potreban moral za američke vojnike i civile.

Bitka kod Gettysburga vodila se ne samo na terenu, već i na ulicama Gettysburga. 1. srpnja vojnici Konfederacije progonili su vojnike Unije u povlačenju kroz grad, a zatim opljačkali kuće i podrume za dragocjenosti, odjeću i hranu. Unatoč početnom povlačenju Unije, bitka je završila 3. srpnja Pickettovom nabojem, u kojoj je snaga od 15.000 vojnika Konfederacije jurila kroz otvorena polja na linijama Unije, ali nije ih uspjela probiti.

U ovom videu virtualno obiđite bojno polje s povjesničarom Matthewom Pinskerom, izvanrednim profesorom povijesti i katedrom za povijest američkog građanskog rata, Dickinson College, koji pruža vodič kroz najvažnija mjesta bitke.


Sadržaj

Vojna situacija

Ubrzo nakon što je vojska Sjeverne Virginije odnijela veliku pobjedu nad vojskom Potomac u bitci za Chancellorsville (30. travnja - 6. svibnja 1863.), Robert E. Lee odlučio se na drugu invaziju na sjever (prva je bila neuspješna) Maryland kampanja iz rujna 1862. koja je završila krvavom bitkom kod Antietama). Takav potez poremetio bi planove Unije za ljetnu kampanju i vjerovatno smanjio pritisak na opkoljeni garnizon Konfederacije u Vicksburgu. Invazija bi omogućila Konfederacijama da žive od blagodati bogatih sjevernih farmi, dok bi ratom razorenoj Virginiji pružio prijeko potreban odmor. Osim toga, Leejeva vojska od 72.000 ljudi [6] mogla bi zaprijetiti Philadelphiji, Baltimoreu i Washingtonu, a možda i ojačati rastući mirovni pokret na sjeveru. [19]

Početni pokreti za borbu

Tako se 3. lipnja Leejeva vojska počela kretati prema sjeveru iz Fredericksburga u Virginiji. Nakon smrti Thomasa J. "Stonewalla" Jacksona, Lee je reorganizirao svoja dva velika korpusa u tri nova korpusa, kojima su zapovijedali general -potpukovnik James Longstreet (Prvi korpus), general -potpukovnik Richard S. Ewell (Drugi) i poručnik General AP Hill (treći) i Ewell i Hill, koji su se ranije javili Jacksonu kao zapovjednici divizija, bili su novi u ovoj razini odgovornosti. Konjička divizija ostala je pod zapovjedništvom general bojnika J.E.B. Stuart. [20]

Sindikalna vojska Potomaca, pod vodstvom general -bojnika Josepha Hookera, sastojala se od sedam pješačkih korpusa, konjičkog korpusa i topničke pričuve, za zajedničku snagu od više od 100.000 ljudi. [5]

Prva velika akcija kampanje dogodila se 9. lipnja između konjičkih snaga na postaji Brandy, u blizini Culpepera u Virginiji. 9500 konjanika Konfederacije pod vodstvom Stuarta bilo je iznenađeno združenim oružničkim snagama generala bojnika Alfreda Pleasontona koje su činile dvije konjičke divizije (8 000 vojnika) i 3 000 pješaka, no Stuart je na kraju odbio napad Unije. Neuvjerljiva bitka, najveći pretežno ratni angažman konjanika, prvi put je dokazala da je sindikalni konjski vojnik bio jednak svom južnom kolegi. [21]

Sredinom lipnja Vojska Sjeverne Virginije bila je spremna prijeći rijeku Potomac i ući u Maryland. Nakon što su pobijedili garnizone Unije u Winchesteru i Martinsburgu, Ewell -ov Drugi korpus počeo je prelaziti rijeku 15. lipnja. Hill i Longstreet -ov korpus slijedili su 24. i 25. lipnja. Vojska Unije prešla je Potomac od 25. do 27. lipnja. [22]

Lee je izdao strogu naredbu svojoj vojsci da smanji negativne učinke na civilno stanovništvo. [23] Hrana, konji i druge zalihe općenito nisu bili zaplijenjeni izravno, iako intendanti koji su sjevernjačkim poljoprivrednicima i trgovcima nadoknađivali novac Konfederacije nisu bili dobro prihvaćeni. Razni gradovi, prije svega York, Pennsylvania, morali su platiti odštetu umjesto zaliha, pod prijetnjom uništenja. Tijekom invazije, Konfederacija je zarobila oko 1.000 sjevernoafričkih Amerikanaca. Neki od njih bili su odbjegli robovi, ali većina su bili slobodnjaci, svi su pod stražom poslati u ropstvo na jug. [16] [17] [18] [24]

Dana 26. lipnja, elementi podjele generala bojnika Jubal Earlyja u Ewellovom korpusu zauzeli su grad Gettysburg nakon što su u nizu manjih okršaja potjerali tek podignutu miliciju Pennsylvanije. Rano je općinu stavio pod počast, ali nije prikupio značajnije zalihe. Vojnici su spalili nekoliko željezničkih vagona i natkriveni most te uništili obližnje tračnice i telegrafske linije. Sljedećeg jutra, Early je krenuo u susjedni okrug York. [25]

U međuvremenu, u kontroverznom potezu, Lee je dopustio J.E.B. Stuarta uzeti dio vojne konjice i zaobići istočni bok vojske Unije. Leejeve naredbe dale su Stuartu veliku širinu, a oba generala dijele krivnju za dugo odsustvo Stuartove konjice, kao i za propust u dodjeljivanju aktivnije uloge konjici koja je ostala s vojskom. Stuart i njegove tri najbolje brigade nisu bili prisutni u vojsci tijekom ključne faze približavanja Gettysburgu i prva dva dana bitke. Do 29. lipnja Leejeva je vojska bila raspoređena u luku od Chambersburga (45 km sjeverozapadno od Gettysburga) do Carlislea (48 km sjeverno od Gettysburga) do Harrisburga i Wrightsvillea na rijeci Susquehanna. [26]

U sporu oko uporabe snaga koje su branile garnizon Harpers Ferry, Hooker je ponudio ostavku, a Abraham Lincoln i vrhovni general Henry W. Halleck, koji su tražili izliku da ga se riješe, odmah su to prihvatili. Hookera su 28. lipnja rano ujutro zamijenili generalmajorom Georgeom Gordonom Meadeom, tada zapovjednikom V korpusa. [27]

29. lipnja, kada je Lee saznao da je vojska Potomaca prešla rijeku Potomac, naredio je koncentraciju svojih snaga oko Cashtowna, koji se nalazi na istočnoj bazi Južne planine i 13 kilometara zapadno od Gettysburga. [28] 30. lipnja, dok je dio Hill's Corpsa bio u Cashtownu, jednoj od Hillovih brigada, Sjeverni Karolinci pod Brigom. General J. Johnston Pettigrew, odvažio se prema Gettysburgu. U svojim memoarima general -bojnik Henry Heth, zapovjednik Pettigrewove divizije, tvrdio je da je poslao Pettigrewa da traži zalihe u gradu - osobito cipele. [29]

Kad su se Pettigrewove trupe 30. lipnja približile Gettysburgu, primijetile su unijatsko konjaništvo pod Brigom. General John Buford stigao je južno od grada, a Pettigrew se vratio u Cashtown bez angažiranja. Kad je Pettigrew rekao Hillu i Hethu ono što je vidio, niti jedan general nije vjerovao da u gradu ili u blizini grada postoje znatne snage Unije, sumnjajući da se radilo samo o miliciji Pennsylvanije. Unatoč zapovijedi generala Leeja da izbjegne opći angažman dok se cijela njegova vojska ne koncentrira, Hill je sljedećeg jutra odlučio uspostaviti značajno izviđanje na snazi ​​kako bi odredio veličinu i snagu neprijateljskih snaga na svom frontu. Oko 5 sati ujutro u srijedu, 1. srpnja, dvije brigade Hethove divizije napredovale su prema Gettysburgu. [30]

Unija

The Vojska Potomaca, u početku pod general -bojnikom Josephom Hookerom (general -bojnik George Meade zamijenio je Hookera 28. lipnja), sastojao se od više od 100.000 ljudi u sljedećoj organizaciji: [31]

    , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik John F. Reynolds, a divizijama je zapovijedao Brig. General James S. Wadsworth, Brig. General John C. Robinson i general bojnik Abner Doubleday. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik Winfield Scott Hancock, a divizijama je zapovijedao Brig. Gens. John C. Caldwell, John Gibbon i Alexander Hays. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik Daniel Sickles, a divizijama su zapovijedali general bojnik David B. Birney i general bojnik Andrew A. Humphreys. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik George Sykes (George G. Meade do 28. lipnja), a divizijama je zapovijedao Brig. Gens. James Barnes, Romeyn B. Ayres i Samuel W. Crawford. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik John Sedgwick, a divizijama kojima je zapovijedao Brig. General Horatio G. Wright, Brig. General Albion P. Howe i general bojnik John Newton. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik Oliver Otis Howard, a divizijama je zapovijedao Brig. General Francis C. Barlow, Brig. General Adolph von Steinwehr i general bojnik Carl Schurz. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik Henry W. Slocum, a divizijama je zapovijedao Brig. Gens. Alpheus S. Williams i John W. Geary.
  • Konjički zbor, kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik Alfred Pleasonton, a divizijama je zapovijedao Brig. Gens. John Buford, David McM. Gregg i H. Judson Kilpatrick.
  • Topnička pričuva, kojom je zapovijedao Brig. General Robert O. Tyler. (Najistaknutiji topnički časnik u Gettysburgu bio je brigadni general. Henry J. Hunt, načelnik topništva u Meadeovu stožeru.)

Tijekom napredovanja na Gettysburgu, general -bojnik Reynolds bio je operativno zapovjednik lijevog ili naprednog krila Armije koje se sastojalo od I, III i XI korpusa. [32] Imajte na umu da su mnoge druge jedinice Unije (koje nisu dio Vojske Potomaca) bile aktivno uključene u Gettysburšku kampanju, ali nisu izravno uključene u bitku za Gettysburg. To je uključivalo dijelove Zbora IV korpusa, miliciju i državne postrojbe Odjela Susquehanna, te razne garnizone, uključujući onaj u Harpers Ferryju.

Konfederacija

Kao reakcija na smrt general -potpukovnika Thomasa J. "Stonewalla" Jacksona nakon Chancellorsvillea, Lee je reorganizirao svoju Vojska Sjeverne Virdžinije (75 000 ljudi) iz dva pješačka zbora u tri. [33]

    , kojim zapovijeda general -potpukovnik James Longstreet, a divizijama zapovijeda general bojnik. Lafayette McLaws, George Pickett i John Bell Hood. , kojim je zapovijedao general -potpukovnik Richard S. Ewell, a divizijama kojima je zapovijedao general bojnik. Jubal A. Early, Edward "Allegheny" Johnson i Robert E. Rodes. , kojim je zapovijedao general -potpukovnik A. P. Hill, a divizijama kojima je zapovijedao bojnik general. Richard H. Anderson, Henry Heth i W. Dorsey Pender. , kojim je zapovijedao general bojnik J. E. B. Stuart, a brigadama kojima je zapovijedao Brig. Gens. Wade Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee, Beverly H. Robertson, Albert G. Jenkins, William E. "Grumble" Jones i John D. Imboden te pukovnik John R. Chambliss.

Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge i Seminary Ridge

Anticipating that the Confederates would march on Gettysburg from the west on the morning of July 1, Buford laid out his defenses on three ridges west of the town: Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge i Seminary Ridge. These were appropriate terrain for a delaying action by his small cavalry division against superior Confederate infantry forces, meant to buy time awaiting the arrival of Union infantrymen who could occupy the strong defensive positions south of town at Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, and Culp's Hill. Buford understood that if the Confederates could gain control of these heights, Meade's army would have difficulty dislodging them. [34]

Confederate General Henry Heth's division advanced with two brigades forward, commanded by Brig. Gens. James J. Archer and Joseph R. Davis. They proceeded easterly in columns along the Chambersburg Pike. Three miles (5 km) west of town, about 7:30 a.m. on July 1, the two brigades met light resistance from vedettes of Union cavalry, and deployed into line. According to lore, the Union soldier to fire the first shot of the battle was Lt. Marcellus Jones. [35] Lt. Jones later returned to Gettysburg, in 1886 erecting a monument marking the spot where he fired the first shot. [36] Eventually Heth's men encountered dismounted troopers of Col. William Gamble's cavalry brigade. The dismounted troopers resisted stoutly, delaying the Confederate advance by firing their breechloading carbines from behind fences and trees. [37] Still, by 10:20 a.m., the Confederates had pushed the Union cavalrymen east to McPherson Ridge, when the vanguard of the I Corps (Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds) finally arrived. [38]

North of the pike, Davis gained a temporary success against Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler's brigade but was repelled with heavy losses in an action around an unfinished railroad bed cut in the ridge. South of the pike, Archer's brigade assaulted through Herbst (also known as McPherson's) Woods. The Union Iron Brigade under Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith enjoyed initial success against Archer, capturing several hundred men, including Archer himself. [39]

General Reynolds was shot and killed early in the fighting while directing troop and artillery placements just to the east of the woods. Shelby Foote wrote that the Union cause lost a man considered by many to be "the best general in the army." [40] Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday assumed command. Fighting in the Chambersburg Pike area lasted until about 12:30 p.m. It resumed around 2:30 p.m., when Heth's entire division engaged, adding the brigades of Pettigrew and Col. John M. Brockenbrough. [41]

As Pettigrew's North Carolina Brigade came on line, they flanked the 19th Indiana and drove the Iron Brigade back. The 26th North Carolina (the largest regiment in the army with 839 men) lost heavily, leaving the first day's fight with around 212 men. By the end of the three-day battle, they had about 152 men standing, the highest casualty percentage for one battle of any regiment, North or South. [42] Slowly the Iron Brigade was pushed out of the woods toward Seminary Ridge. Hill added Maj. Gen. William Dorsey Pender's division to the assault, and the I Corps was driven back through the grounds of the Lutheran Seminary and Gettysburg streets. [43]

As the fighting to the west proceeded, two divisions of Ewell's Second Corps, marching west toward Cashtown in accordance with Lee's order for the army to concentrate in that vicinity, turned south on the Carlisle and Harrisburg roads toward Gettysburg, while the Union XI Corps (Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard) raced north on the Baltimore Pike and Taneytown Road. By early afternoon, the Union line ran in a semicircle west, north, and northeast of Gettysburg. [44]

However, the Union did not have enough troops Cutler, whose brigade was deployed north of the Chambersburg Pike, had his right flank in the air. The leftmost division of the XI Corps was unable to deploy in time to strengthen the line, so Doubleday was forced to throw in reserve brigades to salvage his line. [45]

Around 2 p.m., the Confederate Second Corps divisions of Maj. Gens. Robert E. Rodes and Jubal Early assaulted and out-flanked the Union I and XI Corps positions north and northwest of town. The Confederate brigades of Col. Edward A. O'Neal and Brig. Gen. Alfred Iverson suffered severe losses assaulting the I Corps division of Brig. Gen. John C. Robinson south of Oak Hill. Early's division profited from a blunder by Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, when he advanced his XI Corps division to Blocher's Knoll (directly north of town and now known as Barlow's Knoll) this represented a salient [46] in the corps line, susceptible to attack from multiple sides, and Early's troops overran Barlow's division, which constituted the right flank of the Union Army's position. Barlow was wounded and captured in the attack. [47]

As Union positions collapsed both north and west of town, Gen. Howard ordered a retreat to the high ground south of town at Cemetery Hill, where he had left the division of Brig. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr in reserve. [48] Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock assumed command of the battlefield, sent by Meade when he heard that Reynolds had been killed. Hancock, commander of the II Corps and Meade's most trusted subordinate, was ordered to take command of the field and to determine whether Gettysburg was an appropriate place for a major battle. [49] Hancock told Howard, "I think this the strongest position by nature upon which to fight a battle that I ever saw." When Howard agreed, Hancock concluded the discussion: "Very well, sir, I select this as the battle-field." Hancock's determination had a morale-boosting effect on the retreating Union soldiers, but he played no direct tactical role on the first day. [50]

General Lee understood the defensive potential to the Union if they held this high ground. He sent orders to Ewell that Cemetery Hill be taken "if practicable." Ewell, who had previously served under Stonewall Jackson, a general well known for issuing peremptory orders, determined such an assault was not practicable and, thus, did not attempt it this decision is considered by historians to be a great missed opportunity. [51]

The first day at Gettysburg, more significant than simply a prelude to the bloody second and third days, ranks as the 23rd biggest battle of the war by number of troops engaged. About one quarter of Meade's army (22,000 men) and one third of Lee's army (27,000) were engaged. [52]


The Third Day at Gettysburg and Beyond

The Third Day at Gettysburg and Beyond brings current research and interpretation to bear on a range of pivotal issues surrounding the final day of the battle, July 3, 1863. This revisionist approach begins by expanding our knowledge of the engagement itself: individual essays address Confederate general James Longstreet's role in Pickett's Charge and Union general George Meade's failure to pursue Lee after the fighting. Other essays widen the scope of investigation to look at contemporary reactions to the Confederate defeat across the South, the construction of narratives by the participants themselves--from Confederate survivors of Pickett's assault to Union sergeant Ben Hirst--and the reverberations of Pickett's final momentous charge.

Combining fresh evidence with the reinterpretation of standard sources, these essays refocus our view of the third day at Gettysburg to take in its diverse stories of combat and memory.

The contributors are Gary W. Gallagher, William Garrett Piston, Carol Reardon, Robert K. Krick, Robert L. Bee, and A. Wilson Greene.

O autoru

Gary W. Gallagher is John L. Nau III Professor of History at the University of Virginia. Njegove knjige uključuju The Confederate War i Lee and His Generals in War and Memory.
For more information about Gary W. Gallagher, visit the Author Page.

Recenzije

"These essays help to uncover the true story of Gettysburg beyond the constructed reality of wartime memory makers and later historians. . . . This collection proves that new scholarship surrounding the battle is not only possible but exciting."--Povijest građanskog rata

"Both serious students of Gettysburg and general Civil War enthusiasts will find these essays thought-provoking, informative, and challenging. . . . Students of Civil War military campaigns should look forward eagerly to subsequent volumes of Gallagher's 'Military Campaigns of the Civil War Series."--Civil War Regiments

"The Third Day at Gettysburg and Beyond is a real gem. . . . These well-written and well-documented essays are an important contribution to Gettysburg historiography."--Louisiana History

"Gallagher . . . has provided a mini-treasure for Civil War specialists in this compilation of well-written and challenging theses."--Popis knjiga

"The Third Day at Gettysburg and Beyond is a rare collection. Remarkably consistent in focus and high quality, its articles offer fresh research and a coherent, innovative perspective on the history of the most studied Civil War engagement."--Povijest Zapadne Virginije

"This is a fine collection of essays relating to the Gettysburg campaign. Readers will find them entertaining and enlightening, to be sure, and some might find one or two of them provoking. They are good reading."--Harry W. Pfanz, author of Gettysburg--The Second Day i Gettysburg--Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill


Karta Gettysburg Third day. Position of troops.

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Imajte na umu da je pisano dopuštenje vlasnika autorskih prava i/ili drugih nositelja prava (poput prava na publicitet i/ili privatnost) potrebno za distribuciju, reprodukciju ili drugu uporabu zaštićenih predmeta izvan one koja je dopuštena poštenom upotrebom ili drugim zakonskim izuzecima. Odgovornost za neovisnu pravnu procjenu stavke i osiguravanje svih potrebnih dopuštenja u konačnici snose osobe koje žele koristiti predmet.

Kreditna linija: Kongresna knjižnica, Odjel za zemljopis i kartu.


Lt. Alonzo Cushing at Gettysburg

It was in the pre-dawn hours of July 2, 1863, when six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles of Battery A, 4th United States Artillery went into battery in a small, weed choked pasture on Cemetery Ridge. Partially enclosed by a stone wall that turned sharply west and then southward, later to be known as "The Angle", the position was right in the center of the Union's Second Corps line on Cemetery Ridge. Dawn revealed a broad plain of farm fields subdivided by rows of wooden fencing with the Emmitsburg Road, from Emmitsburg, Maryland to Gettysburg, a few hundred feet in front and almost parallel to the ridge. For the men of the battery, it was a perfect field for artillery to defend and with little activity occurring at that early hour, the artillerymen lounged by the guns.

1st Lt. Alonzo Cushing, 22 years-old and an experienced veteran of numerous battles, commanded Battery A. Born in Wisconsin in 1841, Cushing's family had moved to New York while he was an adolescent. Receiving an appointment to West Point, Cushing found that he loved the discipline of military life and was enamored with artillery. After graduating in the class of 1861, he served in staff positions to various officers until assigned to command the battery in the spring of 1863. Described by men who knew him as a skilled artillerist and devoted to duty, Cushing's battery was manned by men who had served in the army prior to the war and others who had transferred in from infantry regiments. Assigned to the Artillery Brigade of the Second Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, Cushing had thoroughly drilled his battery, preparing them for battle with strict discipline and his personal knowledge of the chaos a battle presented. Though experienced, no one in the battery could have predicted what lay ahead for them at Gettysburg.

Later that same day, the battery was first engaged in a brief artillery duel with Confederate cannon positioned on Seminary Ridge nearly a mile distant, and later in the repulse of the Confederate attack against the Union left that swept right up to the stone wall in front of Cushing's guns. There was some sporadic firing the following morning but then the field went silent. Cushing's artillerymen found shade by their guns or under the limber chests, the horse teams lazily hitched to their harnesses while the drivers brought buckets of water from the nearest wells. Around 1 o'clock, the sharp report of two southern cannon alerted the men. Almost immediately, the ground shook with the roar of over 140 cannon and the air came alive in a storm of exploding shells. It was the cannonade meant to destroy the Union guns and positions that would be charged by two and one-half divisions of southern infantry, including the command of General George E. Pickett. The shock of this southern barrage startled the battery's men, some scrambling for cover while the horses pulled and strained against their harnesses. Through the dust and smoke raced the young lieutenant, barking orders to his gunners to get to their posts and within minutes, Cushing's battery was in action.

Battery A appeared to be the focus of the Confederate cannonade and was nearly destroyed by the furious bombardment. Artillerymen and horses fell dead at their posts. A limber chest exploded with a roar, killing and maiming the crew in charge of adding fuses to the shells. Guns were dismounted, carriages and limbers shattered. At one point, a wheel of one cannon carriage collapsed and the crew abandoned the piece. Furious, Cushing raced into the middle of the fleeing soldiers, drew his pistol, and ordered the men back to their gun, threatening them with death if they ran again. The spare wheel was rolled up to the gun carriage, the piece lifted and set, and within minutes the cannon was back in action.

The cannonade left Cushing's battery in shambles. Only a handful of artillerymen remained, not enough to man the two remaining cannon that could still be used. Though painfully wounded by shell fragments, the young lieutenant was unwilling to personally leave the field or retire his shattered command. Receiving permission from General Alexander Webb, commander of the Union brigade stationed around the battery, to move his two guns down to the wall in the Angle, Cushing and his survivors rolled a gun forward adjacent to the 69th Pennsylvania Infantry where he ordered that extra canister rounds be piled by the piece. Canister- a tin can filled with iron balls- was specifically designed to use against infantry, turning the cannon into a giant shotgun.

Soon the southern infantry of George Pickett's Division crossed the Emmitsburg Road and surged toward Cemetery Ridge. Union infantry opened fire as cannon along the entire front sent hissing shells into the Confederate columns. Round after round tore into the southern ranks but they pressed on, steadily closing on the Angle, Webb's men, and Cushing's gun. Determined to fight to the last, Cushing personally directed every shot as his crew struggled to load and prepare the cannon for the next round. Switching to double charges of canister, Cushing could now see the Confederates were barely 100 yards away and would be up to the muzzle of his gun within seconds. Grasping the lanyard that fired the gun, he shouted above the din to Sergeant Frederick Fuger standing nearby, "I will give them one more shot!" Seconds later a Confederate bullet struck him through the mouth, killing him instantly. His lifeless body tumbled over the gun trail.

The young lieutenant died a hero's death and was later buried with full military honors at his alma mater, West Point. Original cannon on cast-iron carriages and a narrative tablet mark the position of Battery A, 4th United States Artillery in the famous Angle at Gettysburg. Between the guns is a simple stone marker dedicated to Lt. Cushing, placed there by his family, former officers and friends from the 71st Pennsylvania Infantry, in 1887. Approved for a posthumous Medal of Honor in 2010, the medal was awarded by President Barack Obama in a special ceremony at the White House on November 6, 2014. Lieutenant Cushing's is the last Medal of Honor to be awarded to a soldier in the American Civil War.


Karta Map of the Battle of Gettysburg showing positions held July 1st & 3rd 1863.

Karte u materijalima Zbirke karata objavljene su prije 1922., u produkciji vlade Sjedinjenih Država, ili oboje (pogledajte podatke u katalogu koji prate svaku kartu za informacije o datumu objavljivanja i izvoru). Kongresna knjižnica omogućuje pristup ovom materijalu u obrazovne i istraživačke svrhe i nije upoznata sa zaštitom autorskih prava u SAD -u (vidi Naslov 17 Kodeksa Sjedinjenih Država) ili bilo kakvim drugim ograničenjima u materijalima Zbirke karata.

Imajte na umu da je pisano dopuštenje vlasnika autorskih prava i/ili drugih nositelja prava (poput prava na publicitet i/ili privatnost) potrebno za distribuciju, reprodukciju ili drugu uporabu zaštićenih predmeta izvan one koja je dopuštena poštenom upotrebom ili drugim zakonskim izuzecima. Odgovornost za neovisnu pravnu procjenu stavke i osiguravanje svih potrebnih dopuštenja u konačnici snose osobe koje žele koristiti predmet.

Kreditna linija: Kongresna knjižnica, Odjel za zemljopis i kartu.


THE THIRD DAY AT GETTYSBURG - History

Battle of Gettysburg : Cemetery Ridge

Cemetery Ridge Battle of Gettysburg Cemetery Hill Seminary Ridge, The Round Tops Taneytown Road Emmitsburg Road, Little Round Top The Angle, General Barksdale Wilcox Lang Peach Orchard Plum Run

Cemetery Ridge, Gettysburg

Gen. Meade's Headquarters at Cemetery Ridge

Cemetery Ridge

Cemetery Ridge, Gettysburg

Battle of Cemetery Ridge, 2nd Day, Gettysburg

Battle of Cemetery Ridge, Gettysburg, July 2, 1863

Pickett's Charge, July 3, 1863

Cemetery Ridge and Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863

Cemetery Ridge

Cemetery Ridge

1st Minnesota Infantry Monument

Monument to 1st Minnesota Infantry

Confederates press Cemetery Ridge

Battle of Cemetery Ridge, July 2, 1863

Day 3, Battle of Gettysburg

Day 3, Cemetery Ridge, Gettysburg

"Well, capture them!", Hancock commanded, then galloped away to search for additional troops to fill the gap. Without hesitation, Colvill ordered his 262 officers and men forward toward Plum Run where they crashed headlong into Wilcox's men. Within minutes the charge was over. Barely a handful of Minnesotans escaped to rally on Cemetery Ridge, but they had stopped the Alabamians cold while Union troops from Willard's brigade and other commands moved in. Finding himself in danger of being cut off, Wilcox ordered his regiments to retreat and the threat was over. The 1st Minnesota Infantry suffered an appalling loss in this suicidal charge, and more soldiers in the regiment were killed and wounded the following day in repulsing " Pickett's Charge ". The regiment's 82% loss at Gettysburg was never equaled by any other Union regiment during the Civil War.

Just north of the melee in Plum Run, Brig. General Ambrose Wright's Georgia Brigade attacked Union troops at the Codori House and drove them back, pursuing the retreating soldiers to the Angle on Cemetery Ridge. Wright was vigorously counter-attacked by Vermont troops- "Green Mountain Boys" of the 13th, 14th and 16th Vermont Infantry Regiments, which overwhelmed Wright's Confederates, a number of whom were taken prisoner. This was the first and last battle for these Vermont "nine-month regiments", which would be mustered out two weeks after the close of the battle. With the arrival of fresh Union batteries, the gap on Cemetery Ridge was now closed.

July 2nd ended under a fiery red sunset, in sympathy to the blood spilled in the fields, pastures, and woods of the Adams County countryside.

The Confederate artillery bombardment preceding Pickett's Charge on July 3 battered Cemetery Ridge, and Union artillery on the ridge counterfired to Seminary Ridge. Thirty-four Union cannons were disabled, but the three Confederate divisions of the subsequent infantry assault (Pickett's of the First Corps and Pettigrew's and Trimble's of the Third Corps), attacked the Union II Corps at the "stone fence" at the Angle. Heavy rifle and artillery fire prevented all but about 250 Confederates led by Lewis Armistead from penetrating the Union line to the high water mark of the Confederacy. Armistead was mortally wounded. Two brigades of Anderson's Division, assigned to protect Pickett's right flank during the charge, reached a more southern portion of the Union line at Cemetery Ridge soon after the repulse of Pickett's Division, but were driven back with 40% casualties by the 2nd Vermont Brigade.

On July 3, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, and cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,000 Confederates, later known as Pickett's Charge, against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great losses to the Confederate army. Lee next led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Some 51,000 soldiers (23,000 Union 28,000 Confederates) were killed, wounded, captured or missing in the three-day battle.

Pennsylvania Honors Her Sons at Gettysburg

Official Cemetery Ridge Map

Official Gettysburg Battlefield Map

The Pennsylvania Monument

The Pennsylvania Monument at Gettysburg

The Rite of Absolution

Father Corby, Gettysburg NMP

Father William Corby Statue

After the war, Corby returned to his pre-war occupation of teaching at Notre Dame University and was appointed university president. He spent a few years away from Notre Dame for a brief appointment at Sacred Heart College in Watertown, Wisconsin, and returned to Notre Dame in 1877. The university flourished under his guidance until his retirement in 1881. Corby also founded the Notre Dame Post No. 569 of the Grand Army of the Republic, the only post in the nation, "composed entirely of members of a religious order." Father William Corby died in 1897 and is buried at Notre Dame where a similar statue to Father Corby stands today.

Cemetery Ridge, Battle of Gettysburg

Attack of Cemetery Ridge, July 2, 1863
Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863

Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863

Preporučena literatura: Gettysburg -Hill's Hill i Cemetery Hill (Američki građanski rat) (tvrdi uvez). Opis: U ovom pratiocu svoje slavne ranije knjige Gettysburg —Drugi dan, Harry Pfanz daje prvi konačan prikaz borbi između vojske Potomaca i vojske Sjeverne Virginije Roberta E. Leeja na Cemetery Hillu i Culp's Hill &# 8212dva najkritičnija angažmana vođena su u Gettysburgu 2. i 3. srpnja 1863. Pfanz pruža detaljne taktičke izvještaje o svakoj fazi natjecanja i istražuje interakciju između —i odluka koje su donijeli generali s obje strane. Konkretno, on osvjetljava kontroverznu odluku konfederacijskog general -pukovnika Richarda S. Ewella da ne napadne Cemetery Hill nakon prve pobjede na jugu 1. srpnja. Continued below.

Pfanz istražuje i druge značajne značajke borbi, uključujući okupaciju grada Gettysburga od strane Konfederacije, okršaj na južnom kraju grada i ispred brda, korištenje grudi na Culpovom brdu i malu, ali odlučnu borbu između Sindikalna konjica i Stonewall brigada. O autoru: Harry W. Pfanz autor je knjiga Gettysburg -Prvi dan i Gettysburg -Drugi dan. Poručnik, terensko topništvo, tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata, deset je godina služio kao povjesničar u Nacionalnom vojnom parku Gettysburg i povukao se s mjesta glavnog povjesničara Nacionalne službe parkova 1981. Za kupnju dodatnih knjiga od Pfanza, prikladnog Amazona Okvir za pretraživanje nalazi se pri dnu ove stranice.

Interspersed with humor and down-to-earth observations concerning battlefield conditions, the author conscientiously describes all aspects of the battle, from massing of the assault columns and pre-assault artillery barrage to the last shots and the flight of the surviving rebels back to the safety of their lines… Having visited Gettysburg several years ago, this superb volume makes me want to go again.

Recommended Reading : Cemetery Hill: The Struggle For The High Ground, July 1-3, 1863. Description: Cemetery Hill was critical to the Battle of Gettysburg. Controversy has ensued to the present day about the Confederacy's failure to attempt to capture this high ground on July 1, 1863, following its victory over two Corps of the Union Army to the North and West of town. Subsequent events during the Battle , such as Pickett's charge, the fighting on Little Round Top, and the fight for the Wheatfield, have received more attention than General Early's attack on Cemetery Hill during the evening of July 2. Yet, the fighting for Cemetery Hill was critical and may have constituted the South's best possibility of winning the Battle of Gettysburg. Continued below.

Terry Jones's "Cemetery Hill: The Struggle for the High Ground, July 1 -- 3, 1863" (2003) is part of a series called "Battleground America Guides" published by Da Capo Press. Each volume in the series attempts to highlight a small American battlefield or portion of a large battlefield and to explain its significance in a clear and brief narrative. Jones's study admirably meets the stated goals of the series. The book opens with a brief setting of the stage for the Battle of Gettysburg. This is followed by chapters describing the Union and Confederate armies and the leaders who would play crucial roles in the fight for Cemetery Hill. There is a short discussion of the fighting on the opening day of the battle, July 1, 1863, which focuses on the failure of the South to attempt to take Cemetery Hill and the adjacent Culp's Hill following its victory of that day. The chief subject of the book, however, is the fighting for Cemetery Hill late on July 2. Jones explains Cemetery Hill's role in Robert E. Lee's overall battle plan. He discusses the opening artillery duel on the Union right followed by the fierce attack by the Louisiana Tigers and North Carolina troops under the leadership of Hays and Avery on East Cemetery Hill. This attack reached the Union batteries defending Cemetery Hill and may have come within an ace of success given the depletion of the Union defense on the Hill to meet threats on the Union left. Elements of the Union 11th Corps and 2nd Corps reinforced the position and drove back the attack. Southern general Robert Rodes was to have supported this attack on the west but failed to reach his position in time to do so. General John Gordon's position was in reserve behind the troops of Hays and Avery but these troops were not ordered forward. The book deals briefly with the third day of the Battle -- the day of Pickett's charge -- in which the Southern troops did not renew their efforts against Cemetery Hill -- such an attempt would have had scant chance of success in daylight. The final chapter of the book consists of Jones's views on the events of the battle, particularly the failure of the Lieutenant General Richard Ewell of the Second Corps of Lee's Army to attack Cemetery Hill on July 1, a decision Jones finds was correct, and the causes of the failure of the July 2 attack (poor coordination among Ewell, Rodes, Gordon, and A.P Hill of the Southern Third Corps.) There is a brief but highly useful discussion to the prospective visitor to Gettysburg of touring the Cemetery Hill portion of the Battlefield. The book is clearly, crisply and succinctly written. It includes outstanding maps and many interesting photographs and paintings. The reader with some overall knowledge of Gettysburg will find this book more accessible that the two volumes of Harry Pfanz's outstandingly detailed trilogy that deal with the first day of the battle and with the fighting for Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. Serious students of the Battle of Gettysburg can get a good, clear overview of the fighting for Cemetery Hill from this volume.

Recommended Reading : Pickett's Charge--The Last Attack at Gettysburg (Hardcover). Description: Pickett's Charge is probably the best-known military engagement of the Civil War, widely regarded as the defining moment of the battle of Gettysburg and celebrated as the high-water mark of the Confederacy. But as Earl Hess notes, the epic stature of Pickett's Charge has grown at the expense of reality, and the facts of the attack have been obscured or distorted by the legend that surrounds them. With this book, Hess sweeps away the accumulated myths about Pickett's Charge to provide the definitive history of the engagement. Continued below.

Drawing on exhaustive research, especially in unpublished personal accounts, he creates a moving narrative of the attack from both Union and Confederate perspectives, analyzing its planning, execution, aftermath, and legacy. He also examines the history of the units involved, their state of readiness, how they maneuvered under fire, and what the men who marched in the ranks thought about their participation in the assault. Ultimately, Hess explains, such an approach reveals Pickett's Charge both as a case study in how soldiers deal with combat and as a dramatic example of heroism, failure, and fate on the battlefield.

Recommended Reading : Into the Fight: Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg . Description: Challenging conventional views, stretching the minds of Civil War enthusiasts and scholars as only John Michael Priest can, Into the Fight is both a scholarly and a revisionist interpretation of the most famous charge in American history. Using a wide array of sources, ranging from the monuments on the Gettysburg battlefield to the accounts of the participants themselves, Priest rewrites the conventional thinking about this unusually emotional, yet serious, moment in our Civil War.

Starting with a fresh point of view, and with no axes to grind, Into the Fight challenges all interested in that stunning moment in history to rethink their assumptions. Worthwhile for its use of soldiers’ accounts, valuable for its forcing the reader to rethink the common assumptions about the charge, critics may disagree with this research, but they cannot ignore it.

Recommended Reading : Last Chance For Victory: Robert E. Lee And The Gettysburg Campaign. Description: Long after nearly fifty thousand soldiers shed their blood there, serious misunderstandings persist about Robert E. Lee's generalship at Gettysburg . What were Lee's choices before, during, and after the battle? What did he know that caused him to act as he did? Last Chance for Victory addresses these issues by studying Lee's decisions and the military intelligence he possessed when each was made. Continued below.

Packed with new information and original research, Last Chance for Victory draws alarming conclusions to complex issues with precision and clarity. Readers will never look at Robert E. Lee and Gettysburg the same way again.

Recommended Reading : General Lee's Army: From Victory to Collapse . Review: You cannot say that University of North Carolina professor Glatthaar (Partners in Command) did not do his homework in this massive examination of the Civil War–era lives of the men in Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Glatthaar spent nearly 20 years examining and ordering primary source material to ferret out why Lee's men fought, how they lived during the war, how they came close to winning, and why they lost. Glatthaar marshals convincing evidence to challenge the often-expressed notion that the war in the South was a rich man's war and a poor man's fight and that support for slavery was concentrated among the Southern upper class. Continued below.

Lee's army included the rich, poor and middle-class, according to the author, who contends that there was broad support for the war in all economic strata of Confederate society. He also challenges the myth that because Union forces outnumbered and materially outmatched the Confederates, the rebel cause was lost, and articulates Lee and his army's acumen and achievements in the face of this overwhelming opposition. This well-written work provides much food for thought for all Civil War buffs.

Recommended Reading : ONE CONTINUOUS FIGHT: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia , July 4-14, 1863 (Hardcover) (June 2008 ). Description: The titanic three-day battle of Gettysburg left 50,000 casualties in its wake, a battered Southern army far from its base of supplies, and a rich historiographic legacy. Thousands of books and articles cover nearly every aspect of the battle, but not a single volume focuses on the military aspects of the monumentally important movements of the armies to and across the Potomac River . One Continuous Fight: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4-14, 1863 is the first detailed military history of Lee's retreat and the Union effort to catch and destroy the wounded Army of Northern Virginia. Against steep odds and encumbered with thousands of casualties, Confederate commander Robert E. Lee's post-battle task was to successfully withdraw his army across the Potomac River. Union commander George G. Meade's equally difficult assignment was to intercept the effort and destroy his enemy. The responsibility for defending the exposed Southern columns belonged to cavalry chieftain James Ewell Brown (JEB) Stuart. If Stuart fumbled his famous ride north to Gettysburg , his generalship during the retreat more than redeemed his flagging reputation. The ten days of retreat triggered nearly two dozen skirmishes and major engagements, including fighting at Granite Hill, Monterey Pass , Hagerstown , Williamsport , Funkstown, Boonsboro, and Falling Waters. Continued below.

President Abraham Lincoln was thankful for the early July battlefield victory, but disappointed that General Meade was unable to surround and crush the Confederates before they found safety on the far side of the Potomac . Exactly what Meade did to try to intercept the fleeing Confederates, and how the Southerners managed to defend their army and ponderous 17-mile long wagon train of wounded until crossing into western Virginia on the early morning of July 14, is the subject of this study. One Continuous Fight draws upon a massive array of documents, letters, diaries, newspaper accounts, and published primary and secondary sources. These long-ignored foundational sources allow the authors, each widely known for their expertise in Civil War cavalry operations, to describe carefully each engagement. The result is a rich and comprehensive study loaded with incisive tactical commentary, new perspectives on the strategic role of the Southern and Northern cavalry, and fresh insights on every engagement, large and small, fought during the retreat. The retreat from Gettysburg was so punctuated with fighting that a soldier felt compelled to describe it as "One Continuous Fight." Until now, few students fully realized the accuracy of that description. Complimented with 18 original maps, dozens of photos, and a complete driving tour with GPS coordinates of the entire retreat, One Continuous Fight is an essential book for every student of the American Civil War in general, and for the student of Gettysburg in particular. About the Authors: Eric J. Wittenberg has written widely on Civil War cavalry operations. His books include Glory Enough for All (2002), The Union Cavalry Comes of Age (2003), and The Battle of Monroe's Crossroads and the Civil War's Final Campaign (2005). He lives in Columbus , Ohio . J. David Petruzzi is the author of several magazine articles on Eastern Theater cavalry operations, conducts tours of cavalry sites of the Gettysburg Campaign, and is the author of the popular "Buford's Boys." A long time student of the Gettysburg Campaign, Michael Nugent is a retired US Army Armored Cavalry Officer and the descendant of a Civil War Cavalry soldier. He has previously written for several military publications. Nugent lives in Wells, Maine .


Gledaj video: Teritorij Hrvatske od staroga vijeka do osmanlijskih osvajanja (Lipanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Oswin

    Ispričavam se, ali, po mom mišljenju, niste u pravu. Uvjeren sam. Napiši mi u PM.

  2. Shaktigul

    Preporučam da posjetite stranicu s ogromnim brojem članaka na temu koja vas zanima.

  3. Jacobe

    Po mom mišljenju, griješite. mogu to dokazati.

  4. Corbin

    Can we figure it out?

  5. Hroc

    Iskreno se očekivalo da će reći više. Ali možete vidjeti =)

  6. Carswell

    Trenutno se ne mogu uključiti u raspravu - jako sam zauzet. Osvobozhus - nužno njihova zapažanja.



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